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Assignment No.Title – Token Ring NetworkStudent Name –Date of Submission –Name of the Faculty, Affliation1
Table of Contents1.Introduction to Token Ring31.1Operation of Token Ring Network31.2Prioritized Functionalities41.3Ring Management and Maintenance51.4Token Ring Physical Medium51.5Token Ring Network Frame Format62.Media Access Control72.1Message Transmission an Example82.2Token Ring Send Algorithm92.3Token Ring Receive Algorithm103.Protocol114.Advantage of Token Ring124.1 Collision Free Network Operation124.2 High performance in any condition124.3 No need of server to control and manage the network connectivity125. Disadvantages of Token Ring Network135.1 Cost of Multiple Access Unit (MAU) and Network Card135.2 Data Frame Flow135.3 Higher Wait for Sending the data136. Conclusion13References142
1.Introduction to Token RingToken ring is multiple access mechanism used in network to communicate data. In 1980International Business Machine (IBM) developed token ring multiple access mechanism forLocal Area Network. This token ring network access mechanism was developed as an alternativeto the Ethernet network. Later on, Institute of Electrical and Electronics (IEEE) specified thestandard for token ring network as IEEE 802.5. This IEEE 802.5 specification for sharedmultiple access is dedicated for token ring network. The specification states that multiple stationsare connected with a ring network where a particular station is master station that provides atoken into the network. This token circulates in the network and if a station has to send the dataframe then it has to grab the token and add the data into the token to make complete data frameand transmit. Now, this data frame circulates into the ring network and all stations listen to dataframe and one which address matches with the destination address of the frame grab the dataframe and releases the token again into the network. The station which address does not matchwith the destination address of the data frame discards to grab and this way data frame circulatesinto the ring network. Star wire ring configuration is used under the token ring network. All the workstations andnetworking equipments are connected physically with the ring. The signal travels in the ring andall the workstations including the network devices listen the circulating signal. Token ring network is also known as token passing network. A token ring network does notintroduce the problem of collision. This is due to fact that at a time either token is circulating orcomplete data frame is circulating in the network. 1.1 Operation of Token Ring NetworkA token ring network has small frame such as token passes in the ring by which all theworkstations are connected and formed a ring of network. Each workstation listen the token oneby one as token circulates in the ring. It is also the mechanism that each workstation has a turn tosend the data frame to destination workstation in the network. All the succeeding workstationsgrab the token and if they have to send the data frame then attach the data with token to maketoken as a data frame and push into the ring and wait for defined amount of time for3
acknowledgement. The workstation of token ring network is allowed to hold the token for afixed amount of time ("Broadcast Communication Networks", 2017). When a workstation has to send the data it captures the circulating token at time token passesthrough that workstation. After seizing the token the ring becomes empty and the workstationthat captures the token changes 1 bit of the token which makes the token to start of the framesequence. After changing 1 bit of token data is added under specified field of token to make thecomplete data frame. Finally, the workstation releases the token into the ring network to reach tothe destination workstation of network. When the data frame circulates into the ring networkthere is not any token circulates into the network so that other workstations are not able to senddata frame and collision does not occur. All the workstation have to wait for the token to sendthe data to destination machine in the ring network.At other end when the data frame is received by a workstation then the workstation first extractsthe data from the data frame and changes 1 bit of start of frame sequence to make the frame totoken. After making the token by changing 1 bit of frame the token is again released into thenetwork. Now token again circulates into the network. The workstation grabs the token withrespect to turn and if it has to send the data then token seized otherwise workstation releasestoken immediately into the ring.Token passing or token ring network is a deterministic network. Due to this property of tokenring network the calculation of maximum time which passes before a workstation may becapable to transmit data. Token passing network is suitable for those application where thepredictable delay and robust network operation are needed.1.2Prioritized FunctionalitiesToken ring network allows its workstation to be assigned with priority for sending the dataframe. A priority scheme can be implemented with all the workstations or some of theworkstations of the network. The frame of token ring network has two fields for prioritymanagement in network operation. These two fields are priority and reservation field. With this prioritized operational scheme, only a workstation can seize the token which priority iseither equal to or higher than the priority of the token priority field. If this condition machos with4
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