Mathematics AssignmentNameUniversity3rd September 2017
Introduction This study sought to critically analyze the outcomes of a study1 that sought to identify whethersupplementation with capsules containing extracts of elderberry can have helpful impacts for airtravelers. Specifically, the study tested whether black elderberry extricate is viable incounteracting respiratory manifestations, and whether it can likewise positively affect the generalphysical soundness of explorers utilizing whole deal business flights as their method of transport.MethodsParticipants for this study were recruited using travel agencies as well as radio, newspaper andTV ads. They were all at least 18 years of age and in good physical health. Those suffering fromrespiratory diseases e.g. asthma or any condition that could compromise the results of the studyor else taking specific medications regularly e.g. antihistamines or anti-inflammatory drugs wereexcluded from the study. All study participants were economy class passengers travelling fromAustralia to an overseas destination on a minimum 7-hour flight and a minimum stay of fourdays at their destination. Volunteers who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned toeither take capsules containing elderberry extract or a placebo. Key analysis points were twodays before and four days after travel. Over the entire study period, participants maintained adiary to record cold symptoms, as well as additional health issues or disease symptoms. At keyanalysis points participants also completed questionnaires based on which a number of measureswere derived for further analysis.2 | Page
ResultsResults of 283 participants appeared to follow a symmetric distribution as show in thedescriptive statistics summary table where we observed the kurtosis and skewness values to beclose to zero. According to the descriptive statistic of the sample the mean BMI score forElderberry group was found to be 25.581 while that of the Placebo group was 24.946. There wasno significant difference in the scores for two days before travel (M=55.42, SD=10.92) and fourdays after travel (M=54.94, SD=12.13) conditions; t(143)=0.49, p = 0.625. In the second part of this study, we performed an independent samples t-test to compare themean number of cold days for Elderberry group and that of the Placebo group. Results showedthat the mean number of day for the Elderberry group (M = 4.67, SD = 2.27, N = 12) was notsignificantly different from the Placebo group (M = 6.94, SD = 3.65, N = 17), t(27) = -1.91, p> .05, two-tailed. In the other section of part two, an independent samples t-test was performedcomparing the mean symptom scores for Elderberry group and that of the Placebo group. Resultsshowed that the mean symptom scores for the Elderberry group (M = 21.40, SD = 10.10, N = 12)was significantly different from the Placebo group (M = 37.50, SD = 20.00, N = 17), t(27) = -2.56, p < .05, two-tailed. DiscussionThis study sought to understand the effect of Elderberry on some key concepts that affect thehuman health. The paper first compared the Physical Health Composite Scores (PCS) of twogroups of individuals (two days before travel and four days after travel). For the Elderberrygroup, there was no significant differences in the scores before and after. However, there wassignificant difference in the scores before and after for the placebo group. When it came to3 | Page
compare the mean number of cold days between Elderberry and placebo, it was again found tobe no significant difference in the mean number of days for the two groups but there wassignificant difference in the symptom scores for the two groups.ConclusionResults showed that there is no enough statistical evidence to conclude that the population meanPCS scores for two days before travel are different from the means scores four days after travelfor the treatment group (Elderberry) however, for the control group (Placebo), there was enoughstatistical evidence to conclude that the population mean PCS scores for two days before travelare different from the means scores four days after travel.4 | Page
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