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Case StudyLanguage Development (31 months)
PART BIntroductionLocke (1997) describes the developmental theory highlighting the formation of linguistic capabilitiesin children. According to this theory, the first phase is a stage where the learner learns from thecaregivers. Through social learning a child learns to make utterances and stores up languageelements. The formatio of syllables, phonology, morphological and syntax elements starts within thetoddler stage. The above analysis os a child’s language abilities between 2-3 years reveals thisdevelopment in accordance to the expected level of growth. from the above case study, it is evidentthat at 31 months, there is pragmatic growth in which the child is able to make use of language forsocial interactions. This discussion also presents the childs ability to engage the intellectual abilitiesthrough listening skills. Learners at this stage can make basic interpretations, formulate simplesentences and use language structures effectively. There is evidence of proper use of punctuation,grammar rules and two sentences. An intepretation of these language skills notes that the learner hasstrengths and weaknessess hence the caregiver is repsonsible for providing effective support to thelearner. Locke’s theoretical model provides a framework for analysing this. It looks at thedevelopment phases such as utterance acquisition, social cognition, and language elements.The expected level of language at this stage is as shown in the figure below. From the image, alearner within the age of 18-36 months should be able to copy words from adults. At this level singleword sentences like “No” and “yeah” are clear. The learner is also able to make simple sentences.Language clauses represent the critical grammar units namely the verbs, subjects and nouns. Atoodler learner makes an attempt into the process with the stipulated language approaches. However,there are challenges sich as proper punctuations, grammatical patterns and tendency to ignoreprepositions. This explains why some children may experience delays in the formation of first words,vocabulary and words. Signs of speech disorder include failure to use atleast 50 new words, inabilityto combine more than one words, and failure to form simple sentences. By this time, a child should
have the ability to make simple requests, command, listen, acknowledge and use unpoken words. Forexample, a child will be able to say “ Give me water”. This is a simple sentence with a verb, subjectand noun. Poor sentences such as “give water” or incomplete sentences like “give” are a sign of aweakness which requires monitoring as the child develops. Policy makers understand that languagedevelopment between 1-3 years shapes the futures. The Australian Early Childhood learning anddevelopment notes that at age two the child should be able to say and understand mporewords[ CITATION Vic17 \l 1033 ]. The system encourages the ususe of learning techniques in order toencourage learners to embrace language skills and sentence patterns.This is a stage when the learner has began showing a sense of imagination. Using creativity inlanguage bears more fruit. Research into the reasoning ability of the preschoolers reveals thatchildren at this level can comprehend and participate in directed speech (Rakocszy, Behne,Grafenhain, & Lohse, 2014). During this time the child has the capacity to corelate with real lifesituations. This means the ability to pay attention to the speaker, and respond effectively.Figure1; Toddler Speech Development 18-36 months (Home Speech, 2018)
Therefore, the expected language development of the child compared to normative data features theexpected level. From the case study, the level obtained shows strong areas and weakness. FromLocke’s theoretical example, speech orientation does not start with language lessons but atinfancy[CITATION Loc97 \p 268-269 \l 1033 ]. At this stage, the child is able to recognize facialexpressions, and vocals. The social cognition comes in to support the learning process and the motordevelopment. In the case study, the learner shows signs of responding to the caregiver with wordssuch as “what has baby?”,”I love vegemite sandwiches” and “baby drinks lots”. From thesesentences, it is evident that the learner is able to construct words starting with the noun, andincorporating with the verb and subject. Clause patterns such as “Subject Verb, Noun, Subject,Noun, and Verb” are evident. Although the sentences may not follow the expected patterns, an adultcan grasp then idea behind the child’s sentence. However, lack of vocabulary explains the emergingweaknesses such as meaningless words like “vegemite” and “goed” expressed by the child.In the analysis, Sarah shows signs of string emotional development with the ability to present phrasesrepresenting self-expression. This includes the use of interjections like “Yum, Yum!”, “See!” and“Yeah!” This child shows an ability to use a mixture of different words such as “Oink. A pink pig”.This shows some knowledge of animal sounds and colors, which are signs of vocabularydevelopment. Theinterpretation of this child’s language skills using a theoretical model breaks downthe grammatical rule to the level of the child’s development. This highlights it in terms of theirbehaviour, sensory processing, working memory, receptive ability and articulation[ CITATIONDaw12 \l 1033 ].Sarah has the ability to make simple conversations with an adult but she needsexposure for growth. One way to enhance her learning skills is through reading activities. There arecourse books designed for her age with role-plays and learner activities to polish Sarah’s languageabilities.