1.0.IntroductionChild abuse is a condition of enthusiastic, physical, financial and sexual abuse occasionallyobserved in humans worldwide at an age of below 18 years. The growing complexities of lifeand the dramatic changes brought about by socioeconomic transitions have played a majorrole in increasing the vulnerability of children to various and newer forms of abuse (Kiran,2011). Child abuse is an infringement of the essential human privileges of a child and it is theresult of an arrangement of between familial, social, mental and financial elements. Theproblem of child abuse and human rights infringement is a standout amongst the most basicmatters on the International Human Rights. It was estimated that about 3.3-10 millionchildren are exposed each year to domestic violence (Moylan et al., 2010). According to thereports, about 900,000 children were found to be categorized as maltreated by either parentsor caretakers (Moylan et al., 2010). The children who exposed to child abuse are more likelyto experience a wide range of adverse psychosocial and behavioral outcomes (Herrenkohl etal., 2008). In addition, the adverse childhood experiences are nonspecific risk factors formultiple psychiatric disorders (Yang et al.,2013) and several health risk behaviors includingsmoking, overeating, and excessive alcohol and drug use.The present paper describes the evidences of child abuse and its repercussions on health andsociety. Emphasis was given for the case study pertaining to the development of abuse,impact on Samuel health followed by possible recommendations to minimize the potential ofabuse.2.0.Literature reviewThe supporting evidences that related to current context has been searched utilizing on-linesources, magazines, articles with case studies and text books from library. The keywords usedfor the online search include, potential impact of abuse, contributing factors for abuse and itseffect on child growth, risk in children and adolescents; interventions and risk management.2
The web sources used for the search include Pub med, Springer link, Ingenta, Informahealthcare, Science direct and Weily science. Precautions were taken to filter the search inorder to get relevant articles to the current context. The summary of search was described insubsequent sections.3.0.Potential impact of abuse on the development and wellbeing of the childThe humans at young age are in general moves around either parents or care-providers. Thecare providers are the primary source for the safety and wellbeing of children in terms ofaffection, understanding and support (Daro & Dodge, 2009). Child abuse damages the trust atthe center of a child’s relationship with the world. When the primary relationship is anegative schema, can affect the individual’s capacity to establish and sustain significantattachments throughout life. Survivors experience conflictual connections and clamorousways of life, frequently report troubles forming adult intimate connections and the attitudesdisplayed that threaten and disturb cozy connections. The long haul effect of abuse on childwellbeing is extensive; a few studies demonstrate that, without the right support, the effectsof childhood abuse can last a lifetime (Draper et al., 2008). Child abuse survivorsdemonstrate a poor mental health, unhappiness, poor physical health, and childhood physicaland sexual abuse, increased risk of medical diseases, relationships, isolation and behavioralhealth effects. If the management of abuse is neglected, can lead to depression, anxietydisorders, aggressive behavior, suicide attempts and eating disorders etc (CDC, 2016).4.0.Factors influencing child abuseThe factors that contribute for child abuse include parental factors, environmental factors andchild factors (Fraser et al., 2010). The parental factors include, has already abused a child,being an abused parent; unsupported mother with low education; parent is isolated and hasfew supports; parents with mental disorders. The environmental factors include overcrowd inthe house, poverty or lack of opportunity to enhance the earnings of family; family violence3
and family is experiencing multiple stresses. The child factors include baby is sickly; childhas a physical or developmental disability; child is the product of an abusive relationship andlack of attachment between child and parent. However, the tendency of child abuse can beminimized utilizing with educating the child and their caregivers. Nurses play an importantrole in educating the patients to minimize the abuse. According to Fraser et al., (2010), therelationship between nurse characteristics, training, learning of authoritative reportingobligation and attitude on the reporting by nurses of different types of child abuse andneglect. The nurses with adequate training showed significant reduction in the symptoms ofabuse (Fraser et al., 2010). 4.1. Effect of abuse on normal and abnormal patterns of growth The critical period of child is infancy as most of the organs are under development includingbrain. The abuse can influence positive and the negative effects of the external environmentE.g., shaken baby syndrome, is a result of physical abuse (Al Odhayani et al., 2013) due todamage of brain structure. The underlying mechanisms for such effect could be the highlevels of cortisol and catecholamine. The toddler age begins from second year, where thechild shows certain symptoms of stress and reaction towards emotional expression. Similardevelopments could happen during preschool age along with certain developments for theverbal bullying (Leeb et al., 2007). In contrast, girls develop ‘depression’ kind of symptomsand pain at head and abdomen region due to the involvement of somatic nerves (Dehon &Weems, 2010). The children with normal physiology and development show an interactingbehavior with peers during primary school stage. Whereas the children with abuse show pooracademic performance, attentively of listening, and substantial friendship. Adults withnormal developments did not show evidence of development of psychological disorders(Fryers & Brugha, 2013). In contrast, adolescents who had experienced abuse may sufferfrom depressive disorder, tension, or social withdrawal. In addition, adolescents who live in4
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