Design and Development of Robots | Research

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STUDENT NAME - 42908 - Assignment 207 September 2016 1
STUDENT NAME - 42908 - Assignment 2Literature Review TemplateBy AbstractRobotics is the field of study that deals with the research, design and development of robots –automated machines that can perform duties as instructed through programming. Throughout the years,researchers have developed more and more advanced designs of robots with latest technology.However, there are several gaps that are persisting with the existing research results on the humanoidrobots. In this report, a literature review has been conducted to find the gaps that are still remaining inthe research of robots and robotics and these gaps have been addressed.1.IntroductionA robot is referred to as a programmable machine that can perform different types of activities basedon the command sent to it through wireless media. These robots are programmed to do manymechanical activities using the movement of the robotic arms that are analogous to the movement ofhuman arms. Humanoid robots are the ones whose appearance is similar to a human being. Humanoidrobots have been designed in order to reduce the mechanical work load of the human beings. The typesof work that a robot can do include moving an object from one place to another, sweep the floor using abrush or cleaner, interaction with mechanical tools or even drive a car (Madhavan, Prestes & Marques2015). The robot is made to perform these activities with the help of electronic commands sent from anelectronic controller. Since its first inception in the late 19th century, robotics has come a long way andnow, a robot can perform a wide range of activities. A robot consists of a human shaped metallic bodywith arms and a head, which can rotate in any direction and its legs are fitted with wheels that help it tomove from one location to another (Aloimonos 2013). Robots are considered to be the future ofhumanity as it is expected that robots will be able to perform about 70% work done by humanscurrently within the next 100 years. However, there are several gaps in the research activities that havebeen performed till now on the robots (Anderson 2016). Most of the robotics scientists have proposed anumber of work activities that can be performed using robots in the future and how robots will takeover the world dominated by human in the next century but have not sufficiently emphasized on other07 September 2016 2
STUDENT NAME - 42908 - Assignment 2important factors like the costs of making such advanced robot, insertion of artificial intelligence inrobot and others.In this report, a literature review has been conducted to find the gaps that are still remaining in theresearch of robots and robotics.2.Literature ReviewDifferent researchers have worked on robotics and proposed many theories and hypothesis. Most oftheir works have considerably promoted the field of robotics and over the years, many new and moreadvanced robots have been developed. Currently, robots are even made to football and there aretournaments existing for robotic football matches (Bruce et al. 2017). All these on the bright side of thefield of robotics and people can expect even more advanced and functioning robots in the near future.However, some gaps have still remained in the research on robotics that has not yet been addressed bythe researchers. Some researchers have analyzed some of the gaps in recent times and proposed somefeasible solutions to address the solutions. According to Ervin et al. (2015), one main research gap the humanoid robotics is that the researchersare developing robot models based on the simulation results that are being done using some softwares.Although simulation results can provide a proper standard of the actual design, there is significant gapbetween the simulation and the actual robot design. Using simulation, the software created robot modelcan literally do anything – from playing soccer to performing complex mechanical activity. Actualhumanoid robots on the other hand have significant limitations as of the currently available designs.Working of the current designs of the humanoid robots depend solely on the placement of round pivotsat the arm joints and the wheels fixed on the bottom of the robot legs and the functions are limited tolight mechanical activities. Moreover, simulated robots can be made do anything using simpleprogramming. On the other hand, in reality, the commands are limited as the coding of thesecommands is complex and it is hard to make the robot understand the actual meaning of the commands.Xu, Mellmann and Burkhard (2010) have mainly emphasized their work on one particular research gapin robotics and that is the gap between the simulation and reality. They have also used a particular casestudy to identify the gap. According to them, SimSpark is a simulation software that provides a goodplatform for simulating software created robot models. They also researched on the Robot World Cup(RoboCup) that had been created earlier for making the robots play soccer with the main targets offostering the research on robotics as well as develop a full robot team that will be able to defeat a fullhuman team in football by the year 2050 (Colorado et al. 2015). In addition to the research, the07 September 2016 3

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