Harvard System Referencing Guide : Essay

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Harvard System Referencing GuideHarvard System Referencing Guide1. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTIONThis guide sets out the Harvard system of referencing to be used in the Thesis and othermajor essays submitted as part of the course taught through out the MBA program. It isimportant to reference published material that you wish to use in your essay. Whilereferencing is a standard that is used to avoid plagiarism it also supports a strongscientific method.To build arguments and provide evidence you must reference any published resourcesyou use. The spirit of referencing is embodied in Newton's famous 1676 quote,'If I haveseen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants'. It means that Newton's greatdiscoveries were made by building on the previous work of scientists. This referenceguide sets out how to reference other authors' work properly.For each type of material you are referencing (e.g. books, journal articles, newspapers,internet sites), this guide presents two parts, how to write the reference in the text of youressay and how to write the full reference at the end of the essay. The section at the end ofthe essay should be called a reference section and only include those references cited inthe essay. For the purposes of this guide these two sections will be calledin-textreferencingand thereference listformat.A note on paraphrasing and quoting: Quotes are direct transcriptions of text from othersources while paraphrasing uses your own words to express others' ideas. You shouldattempt to paraphrase where possible and only use quotes sparingly and strategically.Both paraphrasing and quoting require referencing, and quotes must refer to the pagenumber from which they were taken (see Books).2. GENERIC FORMAT2. GENERIC FORMATThe Harvard system has a generic format for in-text referencing and the reference list.While this guide provides a range of examples for books, articles, Internet sources etc,the generic format below should be used where adaptation is necessary.In-text(Author, year) or Author (year) e.g. Sillince (1996) or (Sillince, 1999)Reference ListBooksAuthor, (Year) Title. Place Published: Publisher.e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1996) Business Expert Systems. Hitchin: Technical Publications.1
ArticlesAuthor, (Year) 'Article title'. Journal Title, volume (number): pages.e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1999) 'The role of political language forms and language coherencein the organizational change process'. Organization Studies, 20 (3): 485-518.3. BOOKS3. BOOKSThe following exemplifies several in-text references for books with one, two, more thantwo authors, and authors cited by another author. When citing more than two authors, listall authors' surnames the first time, then use et al. (see example). Note the differentformats for the in-text referencing of paraphrasing and quotes (with page number) and thecomplete references in the reference list.In-TextOne AuthorThe development of bureaucratization in the UK was fundamentally different from that ofthe US. The Taylorist efficiency movement occurred in the US during an expansionaryperiod while the same movement occurred in the UK during one of the worst everrecessions (Littler, 1982). Littler (1982) concludes that for these reasons the labormovements in the UK are fundamentally different from those in the US. Thesedifferences in capitalist development had important consequences, 'This affected thepattern of resistance, and British capitalism still carries the scars of this historicalconjuncture' (Littler, 1982: 195).Two AuthorsManagerial skills are a key focus for Whetton and Cameron's (1991) introductory text.Three or More AuthorsSmith, Child and Rowlinson's (1990) case study of Cadbury's Ltd revealed that thecorporate culture's resistance to change was diminished by the use of new concepts andsymbols. The new vision embodied in the transformation was also facilitated by keychange agents located strategically throughout the organizational structure (Smith, et al.,1990).Author cited by other AuthorHaslam, Neale, and Johal (2000) outline Porter's (1980) industry structure analysis. Itfeatures five important forces; barriers to entry, buyers, suppliers, substitutes, andintensity of rivalry (Porter, 1980, in Haslam, et al., 2000). Haslam, et al. (2000) citePharmaceutical giant Glaxo-Wellcome as particularly at risk of low-cost substitutes asdrug patents expire.2
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