Latin Term Meaning10Websites – Friend or foe?Evaluating websites for educational use10Using search engines11-14Difference between a reference list & a bibliography15Features of the reference list15-17Frequently asked questions (FAQs)17-18How to List in DetailQuick guide to referencing models18-20Hard copy books21Electronic books24Hard copy journal articles25Online or electronic journals26Hardcopy – newspaper articles26Electronic copy – newspaper articles27Hard copy university provided study materials27Electronic copy university provided study materials28Other documents on the World Wide Web (www)30Conferences30Dissertations/Theses31Official Reports/Market Research Reports31-32British Standards32Maps/Images32Video/Audio33Television34Advertisements34Specialised sources34Figures & tables36Sample reference list & bibliography37SummaryPoints to keep in mind...38OVERVIEWWhat is referencing?When you write an assignment at university, you are required to refer to the work of other authors. Each time you do so, it is necessary to identify their work by making reference to it— both in the text of your assignment and in a list at the end of your assignment. This practice of acknowledging authors is known as referencing.References must be provided whenever you use someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, computers, other print or electronic sources, and personal communications. A reference is required if you:•quote (use someone else’s exact words)•copy (use figures, tables or structure)•paraphrase (convert someone else’s ideas into your own words)•summarise (use a brief account of someone else’s ideas).1
Why should you reference?References enhance your writing and assist your reader by:•showing the breadth of your research•strengthening your academic argument•showing the reader the source of your information•allowing the reader to consult your sources independently•allowing the reader to verify your data.Should you reference public domain information?Public domain information is information that is so widely known that it is considered everybodywould be aware of its source. The general public use public domain information freely. Where authors or sources are so widely known, specific citation may not be required. Check with your lecturer on this issue.The quick guide to referencingRobert Harris designed these simple flowcharts to assist students to cite their research properly.2
(Source: Harris 2001, p. 155)3
(Source: Harris 2001, p. 158)These flowcharts can be found in Harris, R. (2001). The plagiarism handbook: strategies forpreventing, detecting and dealing with plagiarism. Los Angeles:Pyrczak. pp. 155 & 158.4
AVOIDING PLAGIARISM incl. referencing, paraphrasing, using quotations, technical tips and using websites.What is plagiarism and how can you avoid it?Plagiarism is the intentional use of someone else’s ideas, words or concepts in your assignmentwork. It is considered serious misconduct at University and should be avoided at all times.The University has a policy on plagiarism and you are strongly encouraged to familiarise yourself with it. The policy is in the student handbook and available on Blackboard within Academic Success Unit. Committing plagiarism can carry very serious penalties for students, including expulsion from a university. Regrettably, students have been known to commit offences of plagiarism by not understanding what acceptable paraphrasing, summarizing or quoting techniques are. This is discussed later in this guide.The best way to avoid being accused of plagiarism is to acknowledge the resources upon which you have based your ideas.Which referencing system should you use?This guide explains the Harvard system of author-date referencing. Unlike some other referencing systems, the Harvard system is NOT proprietal. Thus, universities tend to develop their own Harvard guides to help students use standard procedures. This BUiD Harvard guide was developed based on guides from our partner universities namely University of Birmingham, University of Manchester and Cardiff University. Some information was also obtained from Central Queensland University pertaining to specialised sources.Principles of author-date referencingThere are two parts to the author-date system of referencing.•the author and the date are referred to in the text or main body of your writing (called embedded or in-text referencing)•all of the resources referred to in the body of the writing are included in the reference list at theend of the assignment. All information is included in this list: author, date, title of publication, publisher and where it was published.The other features of author-date referencing include:•a specific order in which this information should be structured•the in-text reference which should be placed (cited) in such a way that it causes minimaldisruption to the flow of your writing—this usually means at the very end or the very beginning of your sentences (see ways of citing below).When you cite sources of information in the text of your assignment—regardless of whether you quote, copy, paraphrase or summarise—you should include:•the author’s surname (family name)5
•the year of publication (latest edition)•page numbers when directly quoting or closely paraphrasing an author’s words/material•correct punctuation and spacing.Ways of citingThere are two ways of citing references: author prominent and information prominent.Author prominentThis way gives prominence to the author by using the author’s surname (family name) as part of your sentence with the date and the page number in parentheses (round brackets).Quotation exampleCowie (1996, p. 91) argues that “socialism rejected the liberal ideals of individualism and competition”.Paraphrase exampleCowie (1996) suggests that unlike capitalism, socialism promotes the good of the whole before the good of the individual.Information prominentThe other way of citing references gives prominence to the information, with all the required referencing details in parentheses at the end of the citation.Quotation exampleIt has been argued that “socialism rejected the liberal ideals of individualism and competition” (Cowie 1996, p. 91).Paraphrase exampleUnlike capitalism, socialism promotes the good of the whole before the good of the individual (Cowie 1996).Some signal verbs that help with author-prominent referencingstatepoint outdescriberemarkaddsuggestmaintainassertaffirmagreeclaimclarifydisagreearguecontestcontendhighlightfindshowimplytheoriseofferpredictquestiondisputejustifyconfirmreasonbelievestipulateconcludedemonstratedefineexplainexpoundleaddrawensuresharedevelopextolexpressforecastcategorisepresentmanipulatecalculatecountfeelsimplifysummarisedifferentiatedistinguishbuildformParaphrasing6
Paraphrasing means to restate accurately and succinctly in your own words something you have read. If your work does not refer to specific ideas on particular pages of a resource but to general themes mentioned throughout the resource, page numbers need not be shown.General themeStudies (Tanner 1999) indicate that the economic structure of Australia today is far more unpredictable and unstable than it was thirty years ago.Specific ideaTanner (1999, p. 22) claims that the introduction of the GST in the Australian economic structurehas not impacted the price of fuels.Paraphrase or use quotations?It is preferable that you paraphrase (put ideas in your own words) as too many quotations (using the exact words) can lead to a poorly written assignment. A general rule in academic circles is that no more than 10% of an assignment should be in the form of direct quotations. No matter whether you use quotations or paraphrase another’s words, you always need to give references—both in the text and in the reference list.Using direct quotationsQuotations should be used sparingly, selected carefully, used in context, integrated into your textand reproduced exactly (including the words, spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and paragraphing of the original writer). The word [sic] (meaning so or thus) can be inserted in a quotation when the original text is incorrect with regard to grammar, spelling or gender. For example:•According to Bloggs (2006, p. 21), the alarming growth in obesity levels in Australia can be attributed to “cendentary [sic] lifestyles, time saving household devices and the rapid growth of the fast food industry”.•Smith (2006, p. 21) raises a contentious issue in the discipline debate with the belief that “when a child is at school, he [sic] must comply with the school rules unquestionably”.A quotation is used if:•misinterpretation would result from a change to the words•a major argument needs to be recorded as evidence•it is important to comment on, refute or analyse the ideas expressed•it is a particularly elegant or forceful phrase.Short quotationsShort quotations (fewer than 30 words) should:•be incorporated into your sentence without disrupting the flow of your paragraph•have double quotation marks•have the full stop after the citation•keep the same font size.Incorporating a quote as part of your sentence—information prominent7
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