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MAED108 SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENTTask #1 1. Identify and discuss at least eight sub-systems of a school organization.In analyzing the school as a system in itself, it is necessary to identify all thesubsystems within the school environment. It is through the interaction among thesesubsystems that the school is able to maintain its stability, perform its various functions andeventually attain its objectives.In addition to the above classification of subsystems identified eight types ofsubsystems and the related variables under each type. He calls these as the educationalsystem.Teaching sub-systemSchool management sub-system - Supervision of school management is alsoanother aspect of the scope of supervision in education without which the overallimprovement of teaching-learning process will never be successful. The supervision ofthe management of the educational institution includes the following aspects with it:Co-operation of teachers and community members, the ability of the headmaster torun the school or institution,Co-operation, co-ordination and responsibility between teachers and headmaster inorganizing any program, Duties and responsibilities rendered by the teachers as themembers of different sub-committees for different program, Problems with themanaging committee and Achievements and failures of the school.Instructional supervision sub- systems - the first and foremost task of thesupervisor is how to improve the instruction.For this, he supervises: Method of teaching employed for different subjects, Audio-visual aids used, the time table,the distribution of work among teachers, the written work of students and itscorrection and Teachers lesson diaries and scheme of work.Counseling sub- system - The supervisor has not only to supervise but also guidethe headmaster and teachers in their efforts for ensuring qualitative improvement ofeducation. For this supervision includes the following things in its jurisdiction:Innovations in teaching, Remedial instruction, Community mobilization and supportand Conducting seminars, conferences, meetings and workshops to discuss aboutproblems and their solution.Co-curriculum sub-system - The supervisor supervises the organization of variousco- curricular activities keeping in view their need and importance.These co-curricularactivities are: Games and sports, School magazines, Library services, Educationaltours, and Field trips.Formal sub-systemsInformal support sub-systemTask #2 2. Explain the important of supervision to instruction based on your interviewswith the school heads?The importance of supervision of instruction shall be focused on the design of acreation mechanism with the main goal of enhancing the educational program in generaland teaching in particular.Administrators with supervisory roles have the potential to have a significant impacton the school curriculum and to help ensure the benefits of a successful education programfor children.
Task #3 1. Explain vividly at least FIVE works of instructional supervisory team and addfive more from the perspectives of five school heads.Functions of a principal at an elementary, middle or high school are similar, whether thesetting is public or private. The role of a principal is to provide strategic direction in theschool system. Principals develop standardized curricula, assess teaching methods, monitorstudent achievement, encourage parent involvement, revise policies and procedures,administer the budget, hire and evaluate staff and oversee facilities. Other important dutiesentail developing safety protocols and emergency response procedures.Work often includes attending school functions after hours, such as basketball games,concerts, plays, parent conferences and school board meetings. Having a visible presenceshows interest and dedication to students. Often problems arise which need immediateattention, such as a student disciplinary issue or a call from a worried parent whose child isstruggling in the classroom.Legislative emphasis on measurable student outcomes requires principals to collaborate withteachers to set and achieve high-performance goals. Principals must always be ready toanswer questions from the public about how the school is rectifying any achievement gapsbetween diverse groups of students and performance overall.Task #4 1. With the aid of diagram, discuss possible structure for instructional supervisionand its applicability in your school setting. A whole mechanism systematically designed to accomplish the educational objectives efficiently so that internal structure of the school is determined by the functions which are carried on towards those ends. Task#51. What are the basic aspects of supervisory planning? Discuss these aspects vis-à-vis your actual observation in your school setting.The basic aspect of planning is as follows:✓ The process of fact interpretation
✓ Determining a line of action to be taken in light of all date available and of objectivessought.✓ Detailing the steps to be taken in keeping with the action determined.✓ Making provisions to carry through the plan to a successful conclusion✓ Establishing and maintaining a system of evaluation to see how close performance comesto plans.Planning is an essential part of all management work. The supervisor must look aheadand anticipate the manner in which he will use all the resources, facilities, people, andtalents under his direction. Morale-focused supervisory planning considers the workers' skillsand areas of interest and tailors plans to meet company goals as well as the employees'personal and professional goals. An attitude of mutual respect between supervisors andemployees typically yields the most satisfied and productively-engaged work teams.Supervisory planning that includes an element of input from staffers allows employees tovoice their concerns, share their opinions and be a part of a collective planning effort. Whenemployees feel they have a stake in the contributions they're making, it has a positiveimpact on morale.Task #62. Enumerate the principles of organization and implementation of a supervisoryprogram. How are these applied in your school?The supervisory principal should be familiar with four basic general principles oforganization, which are:✓ The learning situation for students can be improved by the proper administrativeorganization of personnel engaged in supervisory services.✓ Organization for supervision should be based on a generally accepted philosophy ofeducation for the school system✓ The governing board, as a policy–making body, has full authority over the supervisoryprogram and should delegate responsibility and authority for administration of the programto the superintendent.✓ The school’s organization for supervision should be appraised continuously and revised inthe light of the appraisal.Implementation of the supervisory program Think on what the classifications of such kind of supervision. Now read this:✓ it should be creative✓ it should be constructive✓ it should be preventive✓ it should be corrective✓ assist the staff to see more clearly the goals of education.✓ help the staff or teachers to the problems and needs of the student✓ build a strong morale and unify the staff✓ assist the staff especially new teachers in diagnosis learning difficultiesTask#71. Enumerate the activities of your supervisor when planning for classroomvisitation. Identify and discuss the observable things during visitation and factorsinfluencing durations and frequency of visitation.Planning for Classroom VisitationThe supervisor might select activities that are applicable to a specific visit from the followinglists.1. The supervisor will know the purpose of the visit and will ensure that the teacher clearlyunderstands the purpose.
2. The supervisor will know as much as possible about the teaching-learning situation priorto the visit.3. The supervisor will discuss with the teacher the area of the instructional program withwhich the teacher has requested help prior to the visit.4. The supervisor will review all available pertinent materials, including records of previousvisits and follow-up conference that might pertain to the proposed visit.5. The supervisor will refer to any pertinent professional material.Observable things during the VisitThe supervising principal should prepare in advances for the observation by completing alisting of points to be observed. The following outlines proved helpful.✓ Do the students participate in the selection and/or formulation of classroom Standards ofconduct? Is self-control encouraged?✓ Do students recognize the reasons for their being corrected? Is disciplinary actionconsidered a form of constructive criticism?✓ Is the teacher’s attitude friendly and accepting?✓ Is the teacher’s voice well-modulated and of sufficient volume?✓ Do the teachers have leadership, is he/she confident, positive and consistent?Observation MechanismDuration and Frequency. The duration of the supervisory visit will be determined both bythe type of teaching-learning situation being observed and by the type of visit, whether it isthe standard or survey variety and whether it is scheduled. Establishing the purpose for thevisit in advance enables the principal to gauge the length of the visit accordingly. If theteaching-learning situation happens to be a lesson in a course, the principal may want to bein the classroom for a full hour.If the teacher took this initiative by inviting the principal to visit, or if the principal hadinformed the teacher of an intention to visit, the principal will be expected to remain untilthe lesson is completed. In the preplanning session with the teacher, the duration of theprincipal’s visit should be discussed. Certainly, the principal will be in a better position todiscuss the lesson the lesson intelligently in the follow-up conference if the total lesson hasbeen observed.The frequency of supervisory visits will depend on (i) the purpose of the visit and (ii)who initiates the visit. If the supervising principal is observing a teacher who has requestedhelp with a specific area of the instructional program, the principal may want to contemplateon return visit within a short time following the initial observation in order to gather moredata or to demonstrate a teaching technique. Task#82. Wait a minute; think on these, have you observed any, discuss more. What isthe teacher trying to accomplish? Does the teacher know the subject matter? E Isthe teacher well prepared? Does he/she have adequate lesson plans what ofinstructional technology aids? Is the teacher well organized? Does he/she have adefinite place to write assignments? Are assignment clear, reasonable, pertinentand varied.Good lesson planning is essential to the process of teaching and learning. A teacherwho is prepared is well on his/her way to a successful instructional experience. Thedevelopment of interesting lessons takes a great deal of time and effort. As a new teacheryou must be committed to spending the necessary time in this endeavor.It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interestingdelivery procedures, along with good classroom management techniques, are not in
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