Modern Computing Architecture Article

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Please fill in the following details:Student NamePatel MeghabenRockeykumar.Student Number12051284Week 1The text discusses the elements of modern computing architecture however is largely silent on the individuals who played a role in its development. Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE such individual. The individual should have had a significant influence on the development of computers and/or components of modern computing architecture.Title and Reference:Title – Artificial Intelligence. Reference – Childs, M. 2011, ‘John McCarthy: Computer Scientist Known as the father of AI’ [Online] Independent. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/john-mccarthy-computer-scientist-known-as-the-father-of-ai-6255307.html [Accessed 1 Nov. 2011].Summary:This article describes one individual who played a significant role in development of modern computing architecture. I chose this article because it summarises the role of John Mccarthy is development of AI. John McCarthy is known as the father of AI or Artificial Intelligence due to his remarkable achievement in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence is a field of developing intelligent machines that reduces the human labour.In this article the author describes how exceptionally brilliant and a bright child McCarthy
was. His interest and quest to develop machines began right after attending a symposium on ‘cerebral Mechanism in behaviour’. John McCarthy was the one to term the coin Artificial Intelligence. The achievements of John McCarthy have earned him many honours such as Turting Award for his contribution in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The most interesting part of this article is that it explains how McCarthy aimed at exploring different ways a machine being able to reason like a human could do. Therefore, he developed Artificial intelligence with an aim to make a machine capable of abstract thought, problem solving and self-improvement. I found this article interesting as it thoroughly described the technology of Artificial Intelligenceand how John McCarthy believed that every aspect of learning and intelligence could reflect to the principle very precisely and a machine can possibly be developed to stimulate it as well. This article made me think about his contribution to the field of Artificial intelligence which is huge as he laid the foundation of the modern Artificial intelligence that has remarkable uses and advantages in today’s world. Week 2The text discusses the components and activities of operating systems however is largely silent on the individuals who played a role in their development. Find and summarise a resource that describes ONEsuch individual. The individual should have had a significant influence on the writing or development of operating systems.Title and Reference:Title – Linux Operating SystemReferenceOperating-system.org. 2017,History of the Linux Kernel.’ [online] Available at:http://www.operating-system.org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-linux.htm [Accessed 31 Aug. 2017].URL: http://www.operating-system.org/betriebssystem/_english/bs-linux.htmSummary:This article discusses about Linus Torvalds who developed a Linux operating System. I chosethis article as it describes how Linus Torvalds used to program his own driver for the floppy controller.This article describes how Linus Torvalds intensively learned the programming of hardware and gained improved knowledge about the Sinclair Computer with Q-DOS. The most interesting part of this article is that it describes how Linus had always used Unix operating system. This operating system was particularly used in the universities at that time. However, the source code of Minix is open source and any modification to it are bounded by license condition. Linus therefore did not find the terminal emulator program in Minix good or acceptable, and thus began his own project in order to code his own and improved terminal emulator with added function in hardware level. Furthermore, the most interesting part of the article is that it describes the process by which Linus programmed his own drivers for accessing the data medium and file system. These additional functionalities enabled the software for being capable of downloading and uploading from internet.I found this article useful since it discussed in detail the new operating system which was derived from the concepts of Minix but was developed from scratch by Linus. However, the development environment was Minix, it contained the GNU shell bash, and CNU C- compiler and therefore it is called GNU or Linux. In August 1991, the source code was made easily and freely accessible by ftp and therefore, Linux is still widely used as operating system.
Week 3The Internet didn’t just appear – it was an evolution from earlier networks. Find and summarise a resource that describes ONEof the networks that led to the development of the modern Internet. Title and Reference:Title – NSFNET – National Science Foundation Network.ReferenceLivinginternet.com, 2017.NSFNET - The Internet Launching Pad ‘ [online] Available at: http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_nsfnet.htm [Accessed 31 Aug. 2017].URL: http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_nsfnet.htmSummary:This article describes how modern internet evolved from earlier networks. This article describes the emergence of modern internet as a result of the evolution from the earlier network. One such network is the NSFT or national Science Foundation Network. This article describes how NSFNET was the driver or initiator of the first period of modern internet. NSFNET is program coordinated and evolving project sponsored by the National Science foundation. It is the backbone of the research computing that was deployed in mid 1980s. This network was established to provide high speed connection among the five super computers present in the National Science foundation. The article puts light to the fact how NSF promptly became a part of the hierarchical series of network. The most interesting aspect of this article is that, it describes how NSF helped in the development of regional networks that were able to carry traffic from different individual organizations.The article further describes how NFSNET soon became the backbone of the other commercial networks. This network underwent many updates and by the year 1994, the trafficof NSFNET exceeded 10 trillion bytes. NFSNET was a wide area network, which replaced theARPANET as the primary network of the government. I found this particular article helpful as it highlights the journey of NSF’s network which was mainly built for the super computers, to becoming the backbone of modern computer due to its improved performance, public funding and private industry partnership. Week 4Ethernet is an example of a Layer Two (L2) data link protocol that is discussed in the text. Find and summarise a resource that describes the features and uses of ONE other L2 protocol that is not discussed in the text (i.e. NOT Ethernet).Title and Reference:Title- Token RingReference- Lifewire, 2017,What is Token Ring and How Does it Work?’ [online] Available at:https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-token-ring-817952 [Accessed 31 Aug. 2017].URL: https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-token-ring-817952Summary:This article describes a layer two data link protocol. Token ring is an example of layer 2 data link protocol. I chose this article because it clearly defines and describes Token Rings. It is a local area network in which a node is allowed to transmit data only in possession of a

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