Study of Higher Education in Ghana

Added on - Sep 2019

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Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................2
Research objective.....................................................................................................4
Aim of study............................................................................................................4
Background and context of the study.....................................................................4
Statement of the research problem........................................................................5
Definition of key terms and concepts......................................................................5
Assumptions............................................................................................................6
Summary.................................................................................................................6
Literature Review.......................................................................................................7
Results and Findings...................................................................................................9
Data analysis.........................................................................................................21
Summary...............................................................................................................22
Recommendation.....................................................................................................23
Overview of the study...........................................................................................23
Implications...........................................................................................................23
Recommendations for practice.............................................................................23
Recommendations for future research..................................................................23
Conclusion................................................................................................................23
Appendix..................................................................................................................24
References...............................................................................................................25
Introduction
The focus of the study is to understand the impact of current efforts in the Ghana which provides
accessible and affordable higher education. The sources of funding is the major issue in the
accessibility of higher education in Ghana so the current effort of the government is to provide
the sources of funding for higher education which enables to facilitate the higher education for
students in Ghana. The funding policies are the current efforts which are done by the government
in order to facilitate higher education in Ghana. The policies are a hypothesis in which the
designed plan shows the hypothesis of conversion of hypothesis into the government action. The
policy reforms and the formulation of new policies have transformed the higher education with
the aim of pointing various issues and challenges faced in the accessibility of higher education in
Ghana. The policies have been developed in the various areas of higher education which enables
to provide funding facilities in order to ensure smooth running of entire higher education system.
For example policies are designed in order to ensure the quality of higher education. The
The various other efforts are currently takes place in the Ghana such as development of
universities, educational programs by the government and others. The HERANA (Higher
education and economic development) is the program which was established in 2007 in order to
research on the higher education and advocacy network in Africa. It is coordinated by the high
education transform. The higher education masters in Africa programme is the capacity building
component of HERANA which contributes towards the strengthening of higher education in
Africa. The research component of the program contributes towards the research of higher
education in Ghana. The HERANA is funded by the various organizations such as the Ford
foundation, the Rockefeller foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Kresge
foundation. The funding of Higher education masters in Africa programme is done by NORAD.
The project focus on the complex links between the economic development and higher education
in Africa. The objectives of HERANA include evidence based information related to the higher
education and the working of high education sector; link the network of African higher education
with other international groups, sharing of capacity building of inter-disciplinary higher
education in a network of researchers and senior researchers. The multiple source of funding
facilitates higher education in Ghana. The South African funding system is implemented in the
national policy which facilitates higher education and the higher education policies has taken
into consideration equitability, democracy and integrate economic development because it is
considered as the major concern for the development of the general people in Ghana. According
to the research there is a complexity between the Centre for education policy development and
Democratic university staff association but they are trying to achieve the targets in order to
facilitate higher education in Ghana.
The planned and systematic review programs are introduced by the government in order to
review the standard of education, teaching, administration, scholarship and infrastructure which
enable to provide high quality of education in Ghana. The role of universities plays an important
role in providing higher education in Ghana which enables to develop the economy by increasing
the literacy rate of people in Ghana. According to the Varghese et al., 2013 the public sector
institutions and state plays a central role in providing higher education in Ghana through
developing the strategy which enhance the higher education in an efficient and effective manner.
The higher education is provided through universities. In the 1960s and 1970s many universities
are established in the Africa which supports higher education in Ghana and the public
universities in these countries are the symbol of self-respect and national pride. The expansion in
the higher education provides aspiration of political and economic of the newly independent
government. The government was willing to invest in the higher education which provides the
facilities of development in Ghana. In the twenty one century the role is centrally managed by
the universities in order to provide higher education. Since after that the sector is tremendously
expanded in the past few years. The sector of higher education attracts large number of
stakeholders due to which the higher education plays an important role in the transformation of
Ghana. However there are still various challenges which are faced in by the higher education
sector such as funding, concern of quality, poor research base and institution capabilities and
others.
There are many revolutionary changes which took place in the higher education globally which
impacts on the higher education of Africa. The internationalism impacts on the activities of
higher education in Ghana which enables to shape the higher education in the 21stcentury. It is
the major force on the higher education which results into various opportunities, challenges and
risk which demands in depth analysis and understandings. The role of higher education in Africa
is not contestable in the sustainable political, social and economic development. The sector is
struggling due to inadequate capacity and few resources due to which it is difficult to respond to
the increasing demand.
The various challenges are faced in the development of higher education in Ghana which has
pertinently threatened the socio economic wellbeing. The summarization of challenges was
shown within the Millennium development goals. According to the African progress report, 2012
it is shown that the progress is being done towards the attainment of the Millennium
development goals in which the gains in education, disease survivors against the malaria and
HIV, and child survival has been improved. However the overall progress remains slow and
many citizens are still in the trap of poverty due to which there is level of inequality in the across
the Africa.
The project starts with the review of international literature on the relationship between
economic development and higher education which is followed by the three case studies of three
systems that had successfully linked the higher education policy and economic development in
three states, namely, South Korea, Finland and North Carolina. The analytical framework of the
project the universities are considered as the institution for the production of high level skills and
the innovation of knowledge and it is based on the traditional core business. In the government
knowledge policies the higher education is one of the important areas. It shows that the political
actors are more interested in the higher education than the socio economic stakeholders. It raise
the issues of system and the coordination level of knowledge with the adequate structure within
the political system. The research group has taken three case studies in the development of
national strategy in order to enhance the higher education by understanding the complex
relationship between the higher education and economic development. The project is not
attempting various aspects such as the evaluation of universities in the development of the
countries, assessment of the impacts of policies, examination of external donors in the
development of universities, and primary role of higher education in the development.
The universities conditions contribute towards the development of the economies by facilitating
higher education to the students in Ghana. The universities can also took participation in the
global knowledge economy and make a contribution in a sustainable manner if the core of
academics is qualitatively and quantitatively strong. The conditions of the universities in Africa
are contributing towards the development of economy and it is influenced by the following three
factors which are interrelated:
The size, nature and continues academic core of the university.
The nature of a pact between the political authorities, universities and the society.
The impact of implications, level of coordination and connectedness in the context of
large policy of universities.
Research objective
1. To determine the current level of higher education in Ghana.
2. To inquire into "effort" underway to provide accessible and affordable higher education in
Ghana.
3. To develop a case study of "its" objectives, process and current impact.
Aim of study
The aim of the research is to determine the impact of HERANA project on the affordability and
accessibility of higher education in Ghana.
Background and context of the study
The funding policies are ensured by the government in order to facilitate higher education in
Ghana. The HERANA project investigates the following conditions for harnessing higher
educations for the economic development:
1.The quality schooling and equitable is the two foundations on the basis of which higher
education system is built so there was an emphasis on the higher quality of higher
education within the particular time period.
2.The participation rate in the education has been achieved.
3.The higher education is differentiated in order to achieve the human capital and objective
of innovation for the development of economy.
The development of universities is one the current effort which is towards the higher education
in Ghana. There are various issues which are faced by the sector such as weak research and poor
innovation capacity due to which the government is unable to provide high quality of education
in Ghana. The African Union Second decade of education plan has prioritize the higher
education in Africa in order to develop the country and the emphasis on the generation of
knowledge through regional integration, quality assurance, resource mobilization and others.
The African Union Commission views regional integration as the key element and intermediate
step towards the African countries integration into the global economy. It is mainly done to bring
convergence in the higher education system of Ghana which is diversely structured along the
colonial, geographical, structured lines and linguistic. The premium is used for the quality and
research in higher education. It is reflected in the organizations of regional universities for
example Southern Africa Regional Universities Association. The Arusha Convention is
implemented by the Pan African University which aims at the harmonization of academic
programs in order to enhance the quality assurance, compatibility, recognition and the
transferability. The concept of development is not confined to the macroeconomics forces of
growth but it also forces on the improvement of the individual and human conditions
improvement such as standard of living, equality, wellbeing and others.
Statement of the research problem
The purpose of research study is to learn the importance of current efforts in providing the
affordable higher education in Ghana. The study was mainly designed with the following four
interrelated questions:
1.What is the current level of higher education in Ghana?
2.What are the efforts that provide accessible and affordable higher education in Ghana?
3.What is the current impact of the efforts on higher education?
The above research questions are designed in order to tie the central research questions by
guiding the overall study.
Definition of key terms and concepts
The objective of the study and subsidiary and central research questions guides the study. The
working definitions of the key terms and concepts are explained below:
Description of Higher education
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