Urban Regeneration in New York
Added on - 15 Apr 2020
Running head: URBAN REGENERATIONUrban RegenerationName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
URBAN REGENERATION1Urban regeneration as in United Kingdom is also known as urban renewal or urbanrevitalization in United States of America. This relates to the process of redeveloping citieswhere often urban decay is identified. In the late 19thcentury modern attempts to renewal hadbeen initiated in the developed countries (Bridge, Butler and Lees 2012). The program had gonethrough an intense phase under the rules of reconstruction. A major impact of the process hasbeen found on various urban landscapes which has also played an important role indemographics and history of cities all around the world. The process of regeneration includesdemolition of structures, relocation of businesses, relocating people and using eminent domain inform of legal tool to usurped private property to initiate city development projects. The process isat times also carried on in rural areas and is referred to as village renewal but it is not the same inpractice as urban renewal (Cochrane 2007).In certain cases urban regeneration may cause less congestion and urban sprawl whereexpressways and freeways are received by the cities. Proponents see urban regeneration as areform mechanism and an economic engine. However critics of the process see it is a measurefor control. In certain cases it may enhance the condition of the communities and on the otherhand it may also cause the demolition of existing neighborhood (Couch, Fraser and Percy 2003).The purpose of this paper is to analyze urban regeneration in the city of New York.The majority of urban regeneration projects in NY initiated during the interwar period(Diamond et al. 2010). One of the prototype urban regeneration project was the designing andconstruction of the famous central park in NW by Daniel Burnham. In the same way the effortsprovided by Jacob Riis towards supporting to demolish disregarded parts of NY in the 19thcentury are also formative. The restructuring of large sections of the NY City and state by RobertMoses was a significant, prominent and notable example of urban regeneration. The
URBAN REGENERATION2constructions of new highways, housing projects, public parks and bridges were also directed byMoses. The early projects in NY usually focused on sum clearance and were implemented by thelocal public housing authorities. These authorities have been imposed with the responsibility ofdemolishing slums as well as building housing facilities which can be afforded by the citizens(Campkin 2014).The GI bill (Serviceman’s Readjustment Act 1944 provided guarantee in relation toveterans administration mortgages under favorable terms to veterans, which instigatedsuburbanization during the post world war II period. During this period the places likeMichigan, Levittown and NY had been changed from mere farmlands to cities which had beenoccupied by thousands of families in just a few years. The process of urban regeneration in NYhad been kick started by the Housing Act of 1949. Provisions for Federal funding had beenprovided by the legislation to the cities in order to cover the cost of acquiring areas within thecity which were perceived to be slums. Private developers have been provided to NY for thepurpose of constructing new housing. The phrase used in relation to this at that time was “urbanredevelopment”. The phrase urban renewal had been made popular through the enactment of theHousing Act in 1854. This made the program more enticing to the developers as it had theprovisions of providing FHA-backed mortgage among other things (Goodchild 2008).In the mid 1950 Slum Clearance Plan under the Title I of the Housing Act had beenpublished by the Mayor’s Committee on Slum Clearance. The reports consisted of renewal andclearance plans for many slum areas such as Gramercy Park, Lincoln Square and Penn StationSouth. Usually the reports consists of regeneration plans, description of problems in the area, andrelocation plans along with other material information. A few follow up reports which wereentitled Title I Slum Clearance Progress had been released in the latter 1950s. A series of Urban
URBAN REGENERATION3Renewal Designation Reports had been published by the City Planning Commission in the1960s. A few examples of such reports are the Fort Greene and Ebbets area reports in which theCity Planning Commission’s study of the area, summary of what took place in public hearingsand recommendations had been discussed (Hatherley 2011).Preliminary Urban Design Study for the Future of the World Trade Center Site andAdjacent AreasThe Lower Manhattan Development Corporation along with the port authority of NewYork and new jersey have taken the initiative to embark an inclusive and open public process toplan the future of the site if the World trade center and its adjacent areas. LMCD is a state citycorporation which has been established in relation to the aftermath of September 11 to coordinateand oversee the rebuilding and revitalization of Lower Manhattan to the south of Houston Street.The owner of the 16 acre site which was the base of the World trade center once is the PortAuthority.The objective and goals of the board has been documented in the document namedPrinciples and Revised Blueprint for the Future of Lower Manhattan which has been developedby LMDC through proactive listening and collaboration with public input process. The initialprogram for the site initiates with fitting of a memorial and also consists of office and retailspace, transit facilities, infrastructure and a hotel. Keeping in mind such preliminaryrequirements the program seeks inspiration and guidance from previous programs taken placearound the world (Owhin and McCarthy 2013).