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APA Referencing Style Guide

Write a research report of about 3000 words focusing on one of the following topics: 1. How to reach the next level of supply chain by AI, IoT, and Blockchain? 2. How blockchain architectures streamline accounting for the supply chain? 3. How machine learning can transform the Supply Chain?

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Added on  2022-11-07

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This guide explains the APA referencing style for academic writing. It covers in-text citation, reference list, and electronic items. The guide also provides examples for different types of sources. Desklib offers solved assignments, essays, dissertations, and more for students.

APA Referencing Style Guide

Write a research report of about 3000 words focusing on one of the following topics: 1. How to reach the next level of supply chain by AI, IoT, and Blockchain? 2. How blockchain architectures streamline accounting for the supply chain? 3. How machine learning can transform the Supply Chain?

   Added on 2022-11-07

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1 Updated 4/05/2017
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA)
REFERENCING STYLE GUIDE

Overview

Referencing
Academic Honesty and Plagiarism
About the APA style
In-text citation: Referencing
sources within the text

Reference list
Electronic items
In-text citations
Referencing secondary sources
Different works of the same author
name

Books and book chapters

Single author
Two authors
Three to five authors
Six or more authors
No author
Edited book
More than one editor
Chapter, article or section in a book
Chapter or article in an edited book
E-book available via
database/publisher

Journal articles, newspaper articles
and conference papers

Journal article (print version)
Journal article (full-text from
electronic database)

Non-English journal article
translated into English

Newspaper article (available in
print)

Newspaper article (from electronic
database)

Article (from the Internet, not
available in print version)

Proceedings of meetings and
symposiums, conference papers

Systematic reviews
Other materials

Audio recording
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Brochure
Government report (online)
Image on the Internet
Lecture (unpublished) / personal
communication

Podcast (from the Internet)
Thesis
Video recording, television
broadcast or episode in a series

Video (from the Internet)
Web page / document on the
Internet
APA Referencing Style Guide_1
Western Sydney University Library APA Referencing Style Guide
2 Updated 4/05/2017

REFERENCING

Referencing acknowledges the sources that you use to write your essay or assignment paper.

In-text citations are used throughout your writing to acknowledge the sources of your information. The
full references for the citations are then listed at the end of your assignment paper in the References list.

It is important to first consult your unit outline, lecturer or tutor for the preferred citation style for
each unit you undertake.

ACADEMIC HONESTY AND PLAGIARISM

At Western Sydney University plagiarism falls within the framework of the
Student Misconduct Rule and
its
associated guidelines
Further information about the importance of academic honesty is available on the Library
website
ABOUT THE APA STYLE

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely used author-date system of referencing or
bibliographic citation. This guide covers basic explanations and examples for the most common types of
citations used by students. This guide is based on the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th edition)
which is available in the library. If you are unable to find the referencing example
you require in this guide, more detailed information and examples can be found in the above publication.
The
APA Style Guide to Electronic References can be used for examples that are not available in the
Publication Manual.

Current information can also be obtained via the Internet from the official APA Style website

http://www.apastyle.org
which includes tutorials, a blog and FAQs. Corrected sample papers from the
Publication Manual can also be found on the APA website.

For further support, please contact the library:

o Phone 02 98525353

o
Email
o
Online Librarian
IN-TEXT CITATION: REFERENCING SOURCES WITHIN THE TEXT

Throughout the text of your paper you need to acknowledge the sources used in your writing. Whenever
you present a statement of evidence such as a quote, or when you use someone else's ideas, opinions or
theories in your own words (paraphrasing), you must acknowledge your sources. Some examples of how
to cite sources within your paper are given below.

If you use the name of the author(s) in your writing, place the year of publication of the work in
parentheses after the author’s name.
APA Referencing Style Guide_2
Western Sydney University Library APA Referencing Style Guide
3 Updated 4/05/2017

Mullane (2006) conducted research into the effect of...

If you refer to a work in the text of your paper, place the author's last name and the year of publication of
the work in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

The research conclusively proved a correlation between the results (Mullane, 2006).

Note: When you summarise the general idea of a source in your own words, you must cite the author and
year of publication of the work as shown below. APA does not require you to provide the page number
unless you use a direct quote, however if you paraphrase or summarise a specific paragraph or section you
should consider including the page number.

If you directly quote fewer than 40 words, enclose the quotation by double quotation marks within the
text. The year of publication of the work along with the page number(s)* of the quote should be provided
in parentheses.

Mullane (2006) referred to this correlation as a “statistical anomaly” (p. 118), contributing....

or

It was found that the correlation was a “statistical anomaly” (Mullane, 2006, p. 118).

* When there are no page numbers, but the sources contain headings or numbered paragraphs, use a
section name or paragraph number, e.g. Jones (2008, Introduction section) or Roberts (2008, para. 5).

If the paragraphs are not numbered, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the
heading, e.g. Anderson (2005, Discussion section, para. 2)

If the quotation is greater than 40 words it should be displayed in a double-spaced, indented block (1.3
cm) without quotation marks.

Mullane (2006) stated that:

If any similar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent controls should be
put in place to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur through lack of methodological rigor,
particularly through corruption of data inadequately stored and processed. (p. 66)

If you use more than one source to write a statement in your paper, the citation can be presented using
semi-colons between works as follows:

Separate sources, different authors:

...and a number of studies have shown identical results (Sanders, 2008; Smith, 2009).

Two or more publications by the same author:

It was found that...(Smith, 2000, 2004)

Sources that you cite in your writing are listed in detail at the end of your document in a reference list.
APA Referencing Style Guide_3
Western Sydney University Library APA Referencing Style Guide
4 Updated 4/05/2017

REFERENCE LIST

A reference list includes details of the sources cited in your paper. It starts on a separate page at the end
of your assignment paper and is titled References. Each item cited in the reference list must have been
cited in your paper. All sources appearing in the reference list must be ordered alphabetically by
surname.

In contrast to the reference list, a bibliography also includes details of sources not cited in your paper
which were used to support your research. While the APA style does not use bibliographies you may
sometimes be required to include one in addition to a References list. These items should also be listed in
alphabetical order.

The reference list should be double spaced (no line spaces between references) with hanging indents
used for the second and subsequent lines of each entry. A hanging indent is where the left line starts at
the left margin and subsequent lines are indented (approx. 1.3 cm or five spaces). You can use your word
processor to automatically format the double-spacing and hanging indents.

Italics is the preferred format for titles of books, journals and videos. Article and chapter titles are not
italicised or put in quotation marks. Volume numbers are italicised but issue numbers are not.

Capitalisation in APA style is very specific. For references, the following general rules apply:

Book titles - capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title, and the first letter of the first word after
a colon.

e.g. Ageing and aged care in Australia

and

Brave new brain: Conquering mental illness in the era of the genome.

Article, chapter or section titles - capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title, and the first letter
of the first word after a colon.

e.g. Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A
literature review.

Pronouns, acronyms and abbreviations that are normally capitalised should be capitalised in the
reference list and citations. See examples on the following pages for each reference type.

For further information see section 4.22 of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th edition).
APA Referencing Style Guide_4

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