Running head: LEARNING PROCESS LEARNING PROCESSName of the student:Name of University:Author Note:
LEARNING PROCESS1TASK 1The Theories and Models of Reflection and Evaluation The model of Gibb’s has six stages for learning to take place. It stipulates that the feelingof a learner influences the manner in which one begin to reflect on the experience throughevaluation and what can be learn from the reflection. It also gives the learner to ponder on howwell the evaluation could have been performed. It gives a way of seeking alternative ways ofhow the feelings experienced could have been done to better foster learning and to give ways ofimproving the experience. However, the model does not give a way to critical thinking because itis not taking into account the assumptions based on the experience and do not indicate the depthof asking questions.Kolb’s model of experiential learning posits that learning entails an integrated processthat comprises of four stages. In every stage, different learning styles are employed for thepurpose of learning to take place and that different people have a preference of different learningstyles which is influenced by other factors such as the environment, cognitive structure oreducation experiences. The choices that learners make can be process continuum or perceptioncontinuum and no two choices can be made by the learner. The choices adopted by the learnerillustrated the type of learning style that can be adopted so that learning can occur which can bediverging, assimilating, converging or accommodating.Schon’s model point out on the reflection on the action undertaken. It is reflecting onimplicit knowledge that is used in the transfer of experience which takes into account the newexperiences acquired and that to be acquired in the future. This is a model that gets oriented to athought out activity that can be part of an active experimentation. The model assumes that
LEARNING PROCESS2activities undertaken will form part of learning especially when it is accompanied by reflectivewriting where a learner look back on the activities done, analyse as add the previous experiencesand come up with generalizations that will be essential in future. The reflection forms the basesfor future learning where the objectives as well as goals will manifest and remain in the learner’smemory.The model of reflective learning by Boud et al (2005) asserts that interrelationshipsstimulates learning as well as the reflective activity that are created by dedicating time forreflection in an activity that is set for learning. In the model, the initial stage is the return toexperience where there is new experience which is tended to be reflected, analysed andreproduce by the learners. The second stage is the attention to feelings and the learner usesfeelings that are positive and eliminate inappropriate feelings. The third stage is repeatedassessment based on the experience through deeper integration of knowledge learned from firstencounter into the conceptual of the learner. It assists in checking authenticity and for planningfurther and in the process it is employed for professional activity in the process of integration,validation and assimilation. In this model, reflection occurs in a consistent manner; however,there is a lot of repetition emerging on important components.Johns’ Model for Structured Reflection (2006) looks at the situations in relation to theenvironment and present easy questions that can be followed. The model gets employed in anyorder even though it may follow a natural order and is applicable for groups as well asindividuals. In a modification of on Carper’s (1978) types of knowing (empirical, personal,ethical and aesthetic), John added reflexivity in coming up with the model. Irrespective of theabove, the model does not give structured questions and this might bring up confusion to learners
LEARNING PROCESS3with no experience. In addition, the model is having too many questions and this can take a lot oftime to the learner.The Brookfield model (2005) analyses the situation from four lenses self, students (orpatients), colleagues, and research. The reflection that is deeper take into consideration personalself-reflection, patient feedback, peer assessment, as well as information gained from literature.The model is suitable for learners who are inspired for self-directed learning, however, it coversfor perspectives and this is not suitable for a deeper learning in only one angle.The Mezirow model (1981) is a model for transformative learning and deals withpersonal development that entails a learner having a critical evaluation of one self’s assumptionsas well as deep reflection. The model talks of reflection’s frame of reference. There is reflectionon premise and reflection on process and these lead to deeper reflection and personaldevelopment. As per the model, reflection is essential if there is a transformation in self or thereis learning taking place from the dilemma. Despite this, the model is critical only when there ismotivation and time that can be employed in integration of learning. The model concentratesmostly on the rational aspect leaving aside the emotional aspect.The application of Theories and models of reflection in my own practiceIn the analysis of the theories and models of reflection in my own practice, it is apparentthat learning entails a process of reflection cycle that is repeated over and over so that theconcept under consideration gets learned. As a teacher in my own practice, I find that thesetheories and model are essential in aiding the process of making teaching easy undertaking andto make the learning simple. As per Moon (2013) the cycle of teaching start by teaching, self-assessment to ascertain on the impact of teaching on learning, taking into consideration new
LEARNING PROCESS4ways of enhancing quality during learning, practicing the ideas and repeating the process. As ateacher, gaining new insights entails learning through experience. According to Schön (2017)reflection is a reviewing process that permits one to make links. In my case, reflective modelsand theories allows me to make links from experience and connecting those links to the nextuntil learners make the maximum progress. Since reflection is a necessity as well as part ofteaching, it allows me to be aware of the professional knowledge and action through thechallenging of assumptions that might arise in everyday practice as well as critically evaluatingmy own responses to the situations in the practice (Shanks and Tilley, 2016). The process ofreflection encourages working with other people because one is able to share best practice aswell as drawing from others’ support. The process ensures that learning is effective because theprocess of learning is tailored to meet the needs of the learners (Vaughan, 2017).According to Bryant and Usher (2014) one is able to create confidence through the use ofreflective practice because it allows the teacher to builds on the ability to understand learningcapabilities of the learners and to create a way of teaching them well. Based on the Brookfieldmodel (2005), in my practice as a teacher, this is going to allow me identify barriers to learningand create ways of teaching the learners on areas they have not been able to understand. I willalso be able to have diverse range of skills in the process of finding new ways of teaching them.Additionally, I will be able to come with abilities of solving problems and this is possiblethrough the use of questioning and changing the method of delivering the lesson. I will beflexible with my teaching and it gives me time to assess and appreciate teaching. Moreover, thelearners are able to build confidence since they get challenged in the application of new methodsin teaching. Also, through the use of reflection, students are encouraged to take new challenges
LEARNING PROCESS5in learning through the development of secure and knowledge base (Patton and McMahon,2014).In the application of Boud et al (2005) model, I make sure that I am responsible for myown actions as well as those for the learners. As a teacher, I get to know how my learners learnand be accountable on the learning progress. The assessment of the strengths and weaknesses ofteaching and learning allows the teacher to create awareness of aspects that control and hinderlearning.The thoughts and feeling of the learners concerning learning constitute an active part inthe learning cycle as posited by Gibb’s model. The learners are able to take control of theirlearning, work with the teacher and present feedback and this is going to create self-awarenessand responsible learners. As the learners take part in the learning cycle, they get to become moreaware of different learning tasks as well as learning styles and thus making them aware of theprocess of learning. This is going to impart on them key skills as well as strategies of becominglifelong learners.Additionally, innovation is one of the aspects of learning. The reflective practice ensuresthat there the teacher design lessons that are in-line with the target class (Collin, Karsenti andKomis, 2013). Reflective practice compels the teacher to employ new ideas as well asapproaches to teaching in order to gain success. It facilitate varying of learning as well asexperimenting on new approaches for the purpose of giving learners a richer experience so thatthey are able to think creatively, resourcefully, imaginatively and be prepared to adopt to newways of thinking (Bulman and Schutz, 2013).
LEARNING PROCESS6On the other hand, engagement is an essential component in teaching where the teacherand the learner have to take part so that learning is realized (Gould, 2016). As per Redmond(2017), reflection assist in challenging of own practice through the justification of decisions andrationalizing on the choices that has been taken. As per Tsingos, Bosnic-Anticevich and Smith,(2014) the reflective practice allows the teacher to understand different perspectives andviewpoints with the aim of creating environment that centres on the learner as well as the teacherand that which support innovative, confident, engaged and responsible (Moon, 2013).TASK 2 The Theories, Principles, Models of Learning and Models of Learning Preferences Types of Learning Styles ModelsThe Fleming’s VAK model: The model gives a basic method to clarify and comprehendlearning styles. Fleming trusted that there were three classifications of student's preferences. Visual – The students in this category like to learn by observing and learn best with theuse of pictures and visual guides like the slides, graphs etc.Auditory – The students in this category like to learn via listening like addresses,exchanges, and tapes. Kinesthetic – The students in this category like to learn through moving, touching, anddoing. Exploration of the environment is their preferences like science ventures, buildingstructures or models, and dynamic analyses.The Kolb Learning Style Model
LEARNING PROCESS7The theory gives four learning styles that can be seen on a continuum across twodimensions depending on information get perceived and processed. Convergers – These students like to learn through solving issues and doing specializederrands, and they are great at finding functional utilizations for thoughts. They like ideas anddynamic experimentation.Divergers – These students like to learn by perception, conceptualizing and getting data.They are inventive and touchy. They like handy experience and reflection.Assimilators – These students like to learn by placing fact in and organized andlegitimate plan, and utilizing intelligent perception. They like abstraction and hypotheticalthinking.Accommodators – These students like the experiential approach. They are individualswho are hands on and depend on feelings as opposed to logical investigation. They likeinvolvement and testing.The Honey-Mumford ModelHoney-Mumford model have four distinct styles of learning.Activist – The students are inclined toward challenges brought by new encounters andexercises. They get involved directly into new experience to learn. They are good at criticalthinking and taking part in roles, and appreciate discussion when in groups.Reflector – The students here learn by watching, contemplating what they have watched,are considerate individuals and would begin with examination or perception before making anydecision. They gather and make analysis before settling on any choice.
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