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Diabetes Literature Review 2022

The session aims to help students understand the literature review genre, conceptualize and begin a literature review, paraphrase information, and use the CQU Harvard referencing system.

12 Pages3013 Words18 Views

Added on  2022-09-16

Diabetes Literature Review 2022

The session aims to help students understand the literature review genre, conceptualize and begin a literature review, paraphrase information, and use the CQU Harvard referencing system.

   Added on 2022-09-16

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Diabetes Literature Review 2022_1
Diabetes mellitus is a severe chronic metabolic disorder in human characterised by an insistent
hyperglycemia (Chen et al. 2017). It can be both as a result of impairment of insulin secretion, as
well as, resistance to peripheral actions of insulin, or both. Diabetes is as a very common and
prevalent cause of death leading to organ failure, especially kidney impairment, therefore, must
be treated at an early stage(Skyler et al. 2017). It is associated with other metabolic aberrations
in individual with diabetes that has lifelong implications leading to life threatening complication
and other micro vascular and macro vascular complications. There are many treatment options
available for diabetes mellitus like medications, insulin and others, however, individualised
approaches and interventions are found to be successful in the prevention and treatment of this
disease depending on the severity (Skyleret al. 2017). There is a huge requirement of educating
diabetes patients on the role and importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent
diabetes and promote health (Asif 2014). The literature survey was conducted in order to identify
the internal and external factors contributing to the development of this disease and a thorough
analysis of the interventions available to address the risk by studying several articles and journals
and collecting data from those research studies.
Research Questions: What are the risk factors associated with the disease diabetes mellitus?
What are the self management strategies for the treatment of diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes Literature Review 2022_2
Type 1 Diabetes: It is characterised by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing Beta
cells in the islets of the pancreas. Therefore, a complete deficiency of insulin is observed in the
patients with diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the immune cells in human body which normally fights
against infection and foreign pathogen attacks its own cells in the pancreas that makes inulin as a
result of which the pancreas stops making insulin ( 2019). This is mostly caused in
the children and adolescents and characterised by symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria and
polyphagia along with overt hyperglycemia. This type of diabetes are immune mediated nature
and that is why these are also classified as immune-mediated. It is partly inherited with a
multiple genes including some HLA genotypes that increases the risk of diabetes. In the
individuals who have genetic susceptibility are like to develop diabetes triggered by
environmental factors like diet, lack of physical activity and others.
Type 2 diabetes:
This type of diabetes are characterised by insulin resistance which can be a result of a
reduced or impaired insulin secretion. These are the most common type of diabetes recognised
worldwide and develops as a result of lifestyle factors and genetics( 2019). It is a
heterogeneous disorder characterised by peripheral insulin resistance, an impaired regulation in
the production of glucose and a declined Beta cell function, thereby leading to Beta cell failure.
In diabetes, the dysfunction of beta cell owing to impairment of insulin secretion. The
autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic Beta cell are a recognised as a subset of the type 2
diabetes (Cerf 2013).
Diabetes Literature Review 2022_3
Non pharmacological Interventions:
Diet: It has been found that besides medications as therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus,
diet therapy plays an important role in managing diabetes. A diet with low saturated fat with a
high fiber content is recommended to the patients with diabetes (Asif 2014). Patients must be
made educated about the importance of maintaining a proper diet and how it impacts the
occurrence of diabetes in individuals (Raveendran, Chacko and Pappachan2018). Since, obesity
is the most prevalent risk factor in diabetes, a proper diet needs to be maintained in order to
reduce weight. Weight loss helps in improving insulin sensitivity in the liver and in the skeletal
muscle and also reduces accumulation of fat in the pancreas(Raveendran, Chacko and Pappachan
Physical activity: Involvement in physical activity can reduce the chance of developing
diabetes. It helps to keep weight in control. Diabetic patients are recommended to incorporate
physical exercising in their lifestyle as it pays a crucial role in lowering the blood sugar level.
Exercising regularly can also improve body’s sensitivity towards insulin, thus, increasing the
efficacy of the diabetes medications ( 2019). In addition to that, physical
exercising can help in the effective reduction of body fats, which improves the body’s circulation
and as a result, helps in the reduction of the risk of heart diseases. This can also help in the
reduction of mental stress and thus improve the quality of life of the patient (,
Diabetes Literature Review 2022_4

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