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Added on 2023-06-18

The article is about a project related to the study of Australian adolescents in 2020. It includes data preparation, questions, and their solutions using SPSS. The questions include one-sample t-test, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and regression analysis. The article also includes the assumptions and relevant output for each question.

Added on 2023-06-18

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STA10008 FOUNDATIONS OF STATISTICS PROJECT - B

This Project is worth 20% of your final mark for STA10008.

Scenario

You are a new graduate researcher at a social science and psychological sciences research institute. You

have been given a dataset which relates to a study of Australian adolescents in 2020. First year university

students completed a survey on two occasions: at the beginning [Time 1] and the end [Time 2] of the

teaching period. The purpose of the study was to monitor changes in the extent to which first year university

students use avoidance coping strategies and to investigate factors relating to aggression. Extent of

avoidance coping was recorded at the beginning and end of the semester, with external aggression and

internal aggression [hostility] also recorded at the end of the semester. Demographic data was also collected

for each student, regarding their gender and birth order.

For your Project – you should use the data set provided for you in the Project s → Project of the Canvas

site [STA10008_Case-Analysis_Data.sav].

Data Preparation for questions 1 to 4

For the purpose of your report, you must use SPSS to draw a random sample of 350 of the 1000

observations in the STA10008_Case-Analysis_Data.sav data file. You will conduct your analysis using

this random sample of 350. Instructions on how to generate your random sample are on pages 4 to 6 of this

document. Note, however, that some variables contain missing values, so each of your analyses might not

contain the entire 350 cases.

Submission Instructions

Your submission must be a single Word file or PDF file.

Although a cover page is not required, you should include your name and student number within

the document [eg in footer].

You must submit your file via Canvas by the specified due date and time to avoid late

penalties. Only the last document you submit will be retained by Canvas.

Once submitted, please review your submission to ensure the correct file has been submitted.

This is an individual project . Do not share your work with other students. They will have a different

random sample of data, so any copying will be detected.

Page 1 of 14

This Project is worth 20% of your final mark for STA10008.

Scenario

You are a new graduate researcher at a social science and psychological sciences research institute. You

have been given a dataset which relates to a study of Australian adolescents in 2020. First year university

students completed a survey on two occasions: at the beginning [Time 1] and the end [Time 2] of the

teaching period. The purpose of the study was to monitor changes in the extent to which first year university

students use avoidance coping strategies and to investigate factors relating to aggression. Extent of

avoidance coping was recorded at the beginning and end of the semester, with external aggression and

internal aggression [hostility] also recorded at the end of the semester. Demographic data was also collected

for each student, regarding their gender and birth order.

For your Project – you should use the data set provided for you in the Project s → Project of the Canvas

site [STA10008_Case-Analysis_Data.sav].

Data Preparation for questions 1 to 4

For the purpose of your report, you must use SPSS to draw a random sample of 350 of the 1000

observations in the STA10008_Case-Analysis_Data.sav data file. You will conduct your analysis using

this random sample of 350. Instructions on how to generate your random sample are on pages 4 to 6 of this

document. Note, however, that some variables contain missing values, so each of your analyses might not

contain the entire 350 cases.

Submission Instructions

Your submission must be a single Word file or PDF file.

Although a cover page is not required, you should include your name and student number within

the document [eg in footer].

You must submit your file via Canvas by the specified due date and time to avoid late

penalties. Only the last document you submit will be retained by Canvas.

Once submitted, please review your submission to ensure the correct file has been submitted.

This is an individual project . Do not share your work with other students. They will have a different

random sample of data, so any copying will be detected.

Page 1 of 14

For each of requiring SPSS [Q1 to Q4], you should include the relevant output [eg tables and graphs] with

your report. You are also required to complete question 5 and 6, containing short answer questions.

Question 1: [15 marks]

The variable AvoidCope1 gives an indication of the extent to which each student uses avoidance coping

strategies, as recorded at the beginning of the semester. This variable was scored on a scale [taking from

0 to 20], with higher values representing a greater extent of using avoidance coping strategies.

Previous research indicates that first year students have an average avoidance coping score of 8.5 at the

start of a semester. However, an educational psychologist has claimed that this has now changed.

Produce the relevant SPSS output and write a one-sample t-test report based on your output in the style

presented in the Supplement G. Include the relevant output with your answer.

This box is for the REPORT and the FIGURE and will expand automatically.

H0 (Null hypothesis): There is no relative difference between the mean value of students within avoidance

coping strategies.

H1 (Alternative hypothesis): There is a relative difference between the mean value of students within

avoidance coping strategies.

In accordance with the results generated from the SPSS, it has been analyzed that alternative hypothesis is

rejected over null and this is because the value of P (0.34) is greater than 0.05. As a result, it can be stated

that each student did not uses avoidance coping strategies from the starting of a semester. However, from

the statistics description it has been exhibit that the mean of all the sample is 8.7 while there is only 4%

chances of fluctuating the trend by each students as specified under standard deviation.

This box is for ADDITIONAL SPSS output not used in the report and will expand automatically.

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Avoidance Coping score [Time

1] 338 8.7396 4.61551 .25105

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 8.5

t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference

Page 2 of 14

your report. You are also required to complete question 5 and 6, containing short answer questions.

Question 1: [15 marks]

The variable AvoidCope1 gives an indication of the extent to which each student uses avoidance coping

strategies, as recorded at the beginning of the semester. This variable was scored on a scale [taking from

0 to 20], with higher values representing a greater extent of using avoidance coping strategies.

Previous research indicates that first year students have an average avoidance coping score of 8.5 at the

start of a semester. However, an educational psychologist has claimed that this has now changed.

Produce the relevant SPSS output and write a one-sample t-test report based on your output in the style

presented in the Supplement G. Include the relevant output with your answer.

This box is for the REPORT and the FIGURE and will expand automatically.

H0 (Null hypothesis): There is no relative difference between the mean value of students within avoidance

coping strategies.

H1 (Alternative hypothesis): There is a relative difference between the mean value of students within

avoidance coping strategies.

In accordance with the results generated from the SPSS, it has been analyzed that alternative hypothesis is

rejected over null and this is because the value of P (0.34) is greater than 0.05. As a result, it can be stated

that each student did not uses avoidance coping strategies from the starting of a semester. However, from

the statistics description it has been exhibit that the mean of all the sample is 8.7 while there is only 4%

chances of fluctuating the trend by each students as specified under standard deviation.

This box is for ADDITIONAL SPSS output not used in the report and will expand automatically.

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Avoidance Coping score [Time

1] 338 8.7396 4.61551 .25105

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 8.5

t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference

Page 2 of 14

Lower Upper

Avoidance Coping score

[Time 1] .955 337 .340 .23964 -.2542 .7335

Question 2: [20 marks]

The variable ExtAgg gives an indication of the amount of external aggression displayed by each student,

as recorded at the end of the teaching period. This variable was scored on a scale [taking values from 0

to 20], with higher values representing a greater level of external aggression.

A student support advisor predicted that male students in first year study display more external

aggression than female students. Conduct the appropriate significance test using the ExtAgg and Sex

variables to test this claim.

Produce the relevant output and write an independent samples t-test report based on your output in the

style presented in Supplement H. Include the relevant output with your answer.

This box is for the REPORT and the FIGURE and will expand automatically.

Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the mean values of external aggression score

and gender

Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the mean values of external aggression

score and gender

In accordance with the results generated by using independent sample T-Test, it has been analyzed that

there is no significant difference between the mean values of external aggression score and gender because

the value of P is greater than the standard criteria. Thus, it can be stated that alternative hypothesis is

rejected and this indicates that there is no statistically different between the means of two unrelated groups

i.e. Sex and ExtAgg. Also, the results show that whether the student is male or female, the amount of

external aggression displayed by each students is lower.

This box is for ADDITIONAL SPSS output not used in the report and will expand automatically.

Group Statistics

Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

External Aggression score Male 184 6.6957 4.55384 .33571

Page 3 of 14

Avoidance Coping score

[Time 1] .955 337 .340 .23964 -.2542 .7335

Question 2: [20 marks]

The variable ExtAgg gives an indication of the amount of external aggression displayed by each student,

as recorded at the end of the teaching period. This variable was scored on a scale [taking values from 0

to 20], with higher values representing a greater level of external aggression.

A student support advisor predicted that male students in first year study display more external

aggression than female students. Conduct the appropriate significance test using the ExtAgg and Sex

variables to test this claim.

Produce the relevant output and write an independent samples t-test report based on your output in the

style presented in Supplement H. Include the relevant output with your answer.

This box is for the REPORT and the FIGURE and will expand automatically.

Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the mean values of external aggression score

and gender

Alternative hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the mean values of external aggression

score and gender

In accordance with the results generated by using independent sample T-Test, it has been analyzed that

there is no significant difference between the mean values of external aggression score and gender because

the value of P is greater than the standard criteria. Thus, it can be stated that alternative hypothesis is

rejected and this indicates that there is no statistically different between the means of two unrelated groups

i.e. Sex and ExtAgg. Also, the results show that whether the student is male or female, the amount of

external aggression displayed by each students is lower.

This box is for ADDITIONAL SPSS output not used in the report and will expand automatically.

Group Statistics

Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

External Aggression score Male 184 6.6957 4.55384 .33571

Page 3 of 14

Female 160 5.8938 3.77945 .29879

Check and comment on the assumptions of the independent samples t-test. Include the relevant output

with your answer.

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test

for Equality of

Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig.

(2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence

Interval of the

Difference

Lower Upper

External

Aggression

score

Equal

variances

assumed

8.535 .004 1.761 342 .079 .80190 .45525 -.0935

5 1.69735

Equal

variances not

assumed

1.784 341.280 .075 .80190 .44942 -.0820

8 1.68589

Question 3: [20 marks]

The variable Hostility gives an indication of the amount of internal aggression displayed by each student,

as recorded at the end of the school year. This variable was scored on a scale [taking values from 0 to 20],

with higher values representing a greater level of internal aggression [hostility].

A university counsellor believes that there is a difference, on average, between the level of internal

aggression and the level of external aggression of first year university students. Conduct the appropriate

significance test using the Hostility and ExtAgg variables to test this prediction.

Produce the relevant output and write a paired samples t-test report based on your output in the style

presented in the Supplement J. Include the relevant output with your answer.

Page 4 of 14

Check and comment on the assumptions of the independent samples t-test. Include the relevant output

with your answer.

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test

for Equality of

Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig.

(2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence

Interval of the

Difference

Lower Upper

External

Aggression

score

Equal

variances

assumed

8.535 .004 1.761 342 .079 .80190 .45525 -.0935

5 1.69735

Equal

variances not

assumed

1.784 341.280 .075 .80190 .44942 -.0820

8 1.68589

Question 3: [20 marks]

The variable Hostility gives an indication of the amount of internal aggression displayed by each student,

as recorded at the end of the school year. This variable was scored on a scale [taking values from 0 to 20],

with higher values representing a greater level of internal aggression [hostility].

A university counsellor believes that there is a difference, on average, between the level of internal

aggression and the level of external aggression of first year university students. Conduct the appropriate

significance test using the Hostility and ExtAgg variables to test this prediction.

Produce the relevant output and write a paired samples t-test report based on your output in the style

presented in the Supplement J. Include the relevant output with your answer.

Page 4 of 14

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