Assignment On Structure & Functions Of Cell


Added on  2019-09-30

8 Pages2750 Words166 Views

Topic: Structure of a cell and its functions?Keyword: Structure of a cellIntroductionThe cell is the lifeline of an organism from which it grows and gets its nourishment. The structure of the cell plays a vital role in the proper functioning of the body. It can be dividedinto three important parts, cytoplasm, nucleus and cell membrane. The cell is the smallest form of life and has numerous fibers which help in performing the vital functions. The structure of the cell is also important for the structure and functions of the living organism.Some of the important components of the structure of the cell are as follows:Cell Wall- This structure is outside of the cell membrane, and forms the surrounding. The structure of the cell is different from that in plants and animals in terms of the cell wall. In plants, the cell wall is made up of the cellulose, and generally, have three different layers which can support plants life. These include the primary cell wall, middle lamella, and the secondary cell wall.Cell membrane- This is another important component of the structure of the cell and is also known as the plasma membrane. This membrane is also responsible to separatethe external environment and the internal cellular structures. It has the function to protect the cytoplasm. It has a double layer of fats which is called, phospholipids. Mitochondria- It is an important component of the structure of the cell. It performs the function to convert oxygen and glucose into energy. The chemical substance helpsin transporting energy which can be used by cellular structure to grow and repair. The chemical ATP is vital for cellular respiration. When the amount of energy required bythe cell increases, the mitochondria number increases. It is also known as the powerhouse of the structure of the cell.Nucleus-Nucleus forms one of the important structure of the overall structure of the cell. It contains the genetic component which is arranged in DNA molecules and arranged in the form of chromosomes. The evidence indicates that each of the cells has around two meters of DNA. This component of the structure of the cell is responsible for the genetic characteristics of organisms. The genes in the chromosomes help in the promotion of the functions of the cell. It controls various activities and leads to the integrity of the genes. It regulates the expression of the geneand therefore most microbiologists name it as the control center of the cell. The

nucleus matrix is the network of the nucleus which provides the mechanical support to the structure of the cell. The larger molecules cannot pass through the nuclear membrane, the nuclear pores help in transportation of the molecules all over the cell envelope. The larger molecules which include RNA and proteins are used for gene expression and regulation of the chromosomes. It is one of the largest organelles in the structure of the cell of the animals. The nuclear envelope or the nuclear membrane, are made of the two membranes, outer and the inner membrane. It encloses the nucleus and helps in the generation of the genetic material of the cell. The nuclear pores of the structure of the cell provide the aqueous medium through the proteins are distributed throughout the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum- It is also one of the important parts of the structure of the cell. It helps in various general functions, which include, creating the molecules of protein in sacs, and supports the transportation of the proteins in Golgi bodies. This organelle of the structure of the cell is mainly involved in the wrapping of the proteinsand acts as the brain of the cell. It operates closely with the Golgi bodies and ribosomes. It helps in the synthesis of the proteins, and other membrane lipids. The quantity of this organelle, in the structure of the cell changes over time, which is highly dependent on the changes in the metabolic activities of the cell. The changes inthe content of the protein can take place without any changes in the structure of the cell. The surface of this organelle, is made of the protein loaded ribosomes, which is also the reason for the rough appearance of the cell. These ribosomes are not the stable component of the cell, as they are constantly changed and released from the structure of the cell. Lysosome- Lysosome has an important role in the overall structure of the cell. Theseare found in the cells of animals. It is in the shape of spherical vesicles, which are capable to breakdown various types of biomolecules. It is made of a specific composition which includes lumenal and membrane protein. It is responsible for various processes within the structure of the cell, some of which include cell signaling, repair of the plasma membrane, and ensuring energy metabolism. Its major role is as the waste disposal system which is capable of digesting the un-used or obsolete materials within the cytoplasm. Endocytosis is the process through which thematerials from outside the cell is taken-up, and autophagy is the process through which the materials within the structure of the cell is digested. The size of this organelle within the structure of the cell is present in different sizes. The difference

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