Biochemistry Learning


Added on  2023-04-21

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Biochemistry Learning
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Biochemistry Learning_1

The following entails a brief discussion of the biochemistry module of learning.
Biochemistry deals with the complex chemical reactions that take place in the living systems,
focussing on the structure and function of the biomolecules. The cellular metabolism and
product synthesis are the components of biochemistry. Enzymes and co-enzymes play a
crucial role in biochemical reactions. ATP is the universal energy currency of the living cells
(Kee et al. 2013). Glycolysis, TCA cycle and Krebs cycle are examples of biochemical
The animal cells comprise of the cytoplasm and nucleus with double membrane
bound organelles scattered throughout the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is constituted by cytosol
or fluid part and cytoskeleton containing the micro tubular components involved in cell cycle.
Double membrane bound organelles are ribosomes (protein synthesis), mitochondria (site of
ATP synthesis), endoplasmic reticulum (RER containing ribosomes and SER involved in
lipid and glycogen synthesis), lysosomes, golgi apparatus (protein packaging). The nucleus,
consisting of nuclear membrane, nucleolus, nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope, is the primary
organelle containing the DNA in association with histones. Size of DNA molecule is 2M; it is
highly compressed to accommodate into the nucleus of a cell (20 μM).
During cell division, the DNA replicates to form a higher order structure called the
chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids. Somatic chromosomes take part in mitosis;
sex chromosomes undergo meiosis. Chromosomes contain the hereditary gene sequences.
Specific locations of genes on a chromosome are termed as locus. Cell division or cell cycle
consists of interphase followed by mitosis. Interphase is divided into G1 phase (preparing the
cell to replicate), S phase (new DNA strand synthesis) and G2 phase (preparing the cell for
mitosis). Doubling of centrioles occurs in interphase. Identical daughter DNA strands are
synthesized in mitosis.
Biochemistry Learning_2

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