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NATIONAL ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY.

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NATIONAL ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS
HIGHER NATIONALS
BTEC HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS (RQF)
UnitCode,NumberandTitleM/508/0494 RQF level 5 - Unit 8: Innovation and Commercialisation
Semester and AcademicYearSemester 1, Academic year 2019 - 2020
UnitAssessor(s)Pham Quang Ngoc / Bui Thu Van
AssignmentNumberand
TitleIC A1.1:Invention, Innovation, Diffusion (Assessment 1 of 2)
IssueDateMonday, October 21st, 2019
SubmissionDate10.00 am on Tuesday, January 14th, 2020
IVNamePhan Thi Thuc Anh
IV DateMonday, October 21st, 2019
Student name
NEU Student IDPearson ID
Plagiarism is a particular form of cheating. Plagiarism must be avoided at all costs and students who
break the rules, however innocently, may be penalised. It is your responsibility to ensure that you
understand correct referencing practices. As a university level student, you are expected to use
appropriate references throughout and keep carefully detailed notes of all your sources of materialsfor
material you have used in your work, including any material downloaded from the Internet. Please
consult the relevant unit lecturer or your course tutor if you need any further advice.
Student declaration
I certify that the assignment submission is entirely my own work and I fully
understand the consequences of plagiarism.I understand that making a
false declaration is a form of malpractice.
Student(s) name(s) /
SignatureDate:
1
Submission format and Instructions:
This assignment (Assessment 1 of 2) covers Learning Outcome 1&2 (LO1, LO2).
This isanindividual assignment.
The submission format is in the form of a written assignment.
The assignment should have a cover page that includes the assignment code, number, tittle,
assessors’ names and student’s name and ID. Attach all the pages of assignment brief with your
report and leave them blank for official use.
Ensure that authenticity declaration has been signed.
Include a content sheet with a list of all headings and page numbers.
Plagiarismisunacceptable. Studentsmustciteallsourcesandinput theinformationby
paraphrasing,summarising orusingdirectquotes. AFailGradeisgivenwhenPlagiarismis
identifiedinyourwork. There arenoexceptions.
Your evidence/findingsmustbecited usingHarvardReferencing Style. Please refer to Reference
guiding posted on Moodle.
This assignment should be written in a concise, formal business style usingArial 12 or Times New
Roman 13 font size and 1.5 spacing.
The word limit is4,000 words (+/- 10%). If you exceed the word limit (excluding references and
administrative sections) your grade will be penalised.
YouMUSTcompleteandsubmit ahardcopyandsoftcopyofyourworkon thedue datesstated
onAssignment brief.Alllateworkis not allowed to submit. Thisruleisnotwaived under any
circumstances.Thesoftcopymust be submitted to Turn-it-in via Moodle; the hardcopyto
Assignment Box, Room 404A, D2 building.
ReadALLInstructionson thisPage andreviewthe Pass, MeritandDistinction criteria carefully.
To pass the assignment, you must achieveALLthe Pass Criteria outlined in the marking sheet.
To achieve a Merit, you must achieveALLthe Merit criteria (and therefore the Pass criteria). To
achieve a Distinction, you must achieveALLthe Distinction criteria (and therefore the Pass and
Merit criteria).
UnitLearningOutcomes:
LO1:Explain the context for innovation and determine the difference between invention and
innovation
LO2: Explain the different types of innovation
AssessmentBriefandGuidance:
Scenario and activities:
A brief history of the mobileandsmartphone
Smartphones have irrevocably changed our lives. Mobile internet access allows employees to work
from anywhere, while countless apps help people file their taxes, track their spending, or simply stay in
touch with old friends.
But how did our pocket computers get their start?
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Figure 1.A brief history of mobile phone 1973-2007
1970s
Discounting earlier technologies like the unreliableWWI wireless field telephone [1], the accepted
birthday for the cellular telephone isApril 3, 1973 [2]. Standing near a 900 MHz base station in
midtown Manhattan, undoubtedly surrounded by bell bottom jeans andcrocheted midi-dresses [3],
Motorola employee Martin Cooper dialed the number of Bell Labs in New Jersey.
We don’t know exactly what was said on this call. We do know that Cooper used theMotorola
DynaTAC 8000x [4], a product that wouldn’t go on sale to the public for another decade. But that call
was the beginning of a mobile revolution. By 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) introduced
thefirst ever (analog) 1G phone service [5]in Tokyo.
1980s
Although NTT gave Japanese consumers the first access to mobile phone service, it was several years
before the technology moved into the mainstream worldwide.On October 13, 1983 [6], Ameritech
Mobile Communications became the first company to launch a 1G phone network in the US, starting
with Chicago. OnMarch 13, 1984 [7], the Motorola DynaTAC 8000x of Cooper’s call finally went on
sale—for $3,995.
The 8000x wasn’t very mobile—it weighed almost two pounds and took ten hours to charge for thirty
minutes of talk time. ByApril 25, 1989 [8], theMotorola MicroTAC 9800x [9]showcased true
mobility with its (relatively) compact size and flip-up mouthpiece. Of course, they both still had
antennae, and could only be used to place calls.
The 1989 Motorola MicroTAC 9800x, with a flip-up mouthpiece and retractable antenna, weighed less
than one pound and was designed to fit in a shirt pocket. Courtesy Redrum0486.
Figure 2.The first mobile phone worthy of the name.
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1990s
Appropriately for a decade that saw the reunification of Germany and the official formation of the
European Union, the first GSM call was made in 1991. The GSM standard established a common
network across Europe and provided users with uninterrupted service even when they crossed borders.
The first GSM phone, the Nokia 1011, which went on saleNovember 9, 1992 [10], also introduced text-
messaging.
And here’s where we preview the smartphone. WhenIBM’s Simon [11]was released on August 16,
1994, it was a bit early to the game. You could send email (and faxes!), sketch on its touchscreen with
the included stylus, and consult the calendar, world time clock, and address book. But you couldn’t surf
the web—after all,NCSA’s Mosaic [12]browser had only appeared one year earlier and home
computers were just starting to adapt.
Figure 3.What was the First Smartphone: This video takes a look at some little known history. The
IBM Simon personal communicator really was well ahead of its time. [13]
While IBM’s Simon was a bold entry into the market, it wasn’t exactly the smoothest starting point for
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