Psychology: Assignment


Added on  2019-09-30

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Running Head: psychologyPSYCHOLOGYASSIGNMENTOperant and classical conditioning

Psychology 16.1 Psychology Assignment Operant conditioning was discovered by BF Skinner which is based on Thorndike's (1905) law of effect. He introduced a new term by the name of Reinforcement (Law of Effect). Behavior is called strengthened when it is reinforced; behavior called weakened when it is not reinforced. B.F. Skinner brainstorms the operant conditioning term which means changing of behavior with the use of reinforcement given after the coveted result. McLeod, S. A. (2007). He has developed three types of responses as follows:1.Reinforcers: Responses that increases the probability of behavior of being repeated. There can be positive or negative reinforcers.2.Neutral Operants: Responses that never increase or decrease from the probability of behavior.3.Punishers: Responses that decreases the behavior of being repeated. Basically, it weakensthe behavior."If a tone sounds, food is likely to follow."- By Pavlov'sOperant behavior is a process of rewarding and punishing the behavior as per requirement. For the healthy eating and doing exercise and to achieve his goal to increase the chance of making the football team, my roommate should have reward himself for doing good practices which are in favor of losing weight. In spite of setting new rules, I suggested him to make a set goals beforeheading. For example, let's say he should set a goal of losing three pounds weight in a week in prescribed manner that is by following particular diet chart and doing a workout when he set a goal for a week then he can take a day off and can lay on the couch without doing anything. This process is known as positive reinforcement; basically there are two types of reinforcement

Psychology 2positive and negative in positive there is a reward, and in negative reinforcement, punishment is there, which gives him something to look forward other things and something to seek it. This makes the learner repeat the behavior again as he knew that he could enjoy after as he can take a whole day off and being lazy on the couch. This is known as primary reinforcement. But if he fails to lose three pound weight minimum in a week then he would skip out of something rewarding like sweets or chocolates after dinner for one night, he would get after he loses a three pound weight in a week which is called as secondary reinforcement which comes after primary reinforcement or which is connected with primary reinforcement only. (Wolf, M et al...1963) Operant conditioning is different from classical learning as the learner is teaching himself independently which an opposite of learning from dependency behavior is.Behaviorists have discovered different schedules reinforcement which had a different effect on the speed of learning. In this there are two types of rate one is response rate and the second one isextinction rate. In this situation learner should follow that schedule in which response rate is fast i.e. learner should work hard, and the extinction rate is medium i.e. how soon the learner gave up. The learner should adopt Fixed Ratio Reinforcement. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement refers to giving after a fixed time interval providing at least one reward for the correct response in this response rate.

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